11. CAUPD and DHI - Integrated Urban Water Development

Report
Integrated Urban Water Management
Recent Advances of Urban Water Management in
China ---- Urban Stormwater Management and Local
Pluvial Flood Prevention
China Academy of Urban Planning & Design
DHI and Grundfos, Denmark
2014/12/04 Beijing
Outline
1. Background of urban storm water management in China
2. Recent advances in urban storm water management in China
3. Some preliminary thoughts about integrated of urban water
management in China
4. Progress and plan
1. Background
1. Background
1.1 flooding events
• River flood have been basically brought under control
After the 1998 Yangtze river floods, such a serious flood disaster are rarely appeared.
• Urban local pluvial flood are becoming
especially in big cities
more and more serious,
1. Background
1.1 flooding events
Beijing, 2007
Beijing, 2008
1. Background
1.1 flooding events
Beijing 2011-06-23
1. Background
1.1 flooding events
2012-07-21 Beijing
•
Average precipitation was 170mm with the
maximum of 460mm in Beijing on 21 July
2012.
•
79 people were killed in that event and the
total direct damage was estimated to be 10
billion RMB.
1. Background
1.1 flooding events
2013.10 Shanghai
2013.10 Ningbo
2013.10 Hangzhou
2013.10 Ningbo
1. Background
1.1 flooding events
24 May 2013 Fangchenggang
28 May 2013 Xi’an
27 May 2013 Shenzhen
16 May 2013 Xiamen
1. Background
1.2 Rapid urbanization
Urbanization rate in China since 1990
Urbanization rate
Growth rate
China is currently under the process of rapid
urbanization. Now more than half of the total
population live in the urban.
More than 13 million people become living in
the urban, resulting in the urban built-up area
expand 1300km2 annually.
Land use in Beijing in 1985 and 2007
1985
2007
1. Background
1.2 Rapid urbanization
Water bodies are buried, reclaimed to farmland or blocked during the process of urbanization.
1. Background
1.2 Rapid urbanization
The area losses of water body in Wuhan reaches
39% from 1991 to 2000
武
– 上世纪50年代城区湖泊127个,目前仅存38个,
湖
上世纪80年代湖泊874平方千米,现状645平
方千米
– 38 lakes in Wuhan now compared to 127 lakes
in 1950s, 645km2 lakes now compared to
874km2 three decades ago
沉
湖
南湖
东湖
沙湖
水果
湖
Water body in 2010 汤逊湖
Water body losses 黄家湖
Changes of water body in Wuhan(1991-2010)
1. Background

1.3 Insufficient input and low design standard
Insufficient input for the drainage infrastructure.
200
Design return period for pipe line
187
164
150


Low design standard for the drainage system.
Insufficient investment for O&M.
100
50
35
33 42
1-2年
≥3年
20
0
≤1年
老城地区
新城地区
Design standard for urban storm water system
Released time
Design return period for pipe line
for important area
Return period of urban drainage system
300
200
215
180
100
35
16 22
3-5年
≥5年
11
0
≤3年
老城地区
新城地区
1. Background
1.4 High attention paid by gov.
1.Report on the Central Government Work 2013 :
“The investment of the central budget are mainly invested in affordable housing projects,
agriculture, water conservancy, urban pipe network and other infrastructure, social programs
and other livelihood projects, energy conservation and ecological environment”. And the
construction of urban pipe network are involved in the investment from the central
government for the first time in history, which may stimulate the development soon.
2.Enhancements of the Construction of urban municipal infrastructure from the State
Council of the People's Republic of China stated:
To accelerate the construction of urban infrastructure and renovation, market access will be
further expanded, and social capital are encouraged to participate in.
2. Recent advances of storm water management
2. Recent advances of storm water management
2.1 Some important official documents issued
High attention paid by central government and local
government
•
•
•
•
Notification on the Enhancements of the Construction of
Urban Drainage and Urban Flooding-protective Facilities
from General Office of the State Council of the People's
Republic of China No.〔2013〕23
Advice on the Enhancements of the Construction of
urban municipal infrastructure from the State Council of
the People's Republic of China
Regulation on Urban Drainage and Sewage Treatment
from the State Council of the People's Republic of China
Advice on the Enhancements of the Construction of
Urban underground pipelines from General Office of the
State Council of the People's Republic of China No.
〔2014〕27
2. Recent advances of storm water management
2.1 Some important official documents issued
 Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development
of the People's Republic of China(MOHURD)
(2013) No. 88
Technical Guideline for census data collection and
management of the Comprehensive Urban Storm Water
Drainage and Localized Pluvial Flooding Mitigation
Facilities.
 MOHURD (2013) No. 98
Technical Guideline for the Formulation of Comprehensive
Urban Storm Water Drainage and Localized Pluvial
Flooding Mitigation Planning.
 MOHURD (2014) No. 66
Revising of storm intensity formula.
 MOHURD (2014) No. 275
Technical Guideline for the construction of “Sponge
City”——Construction of storm water system with the
concept of low impact development.
2. Recent advances of storm water management
2.2 A lot of research projects are and will be supported
Money from Asian Development Bank, Ministry of Science and Technology, State Key
Research Project for Water and National Natural Science Foundation committee.
2. Recent advances of storm water management
2.3 Standard, code and technical guidelines are under revised or
newly released. Design standard improved
2. Recent advances of storm water management
2.3 Standard, code and technical guidelines are under revised or
newly released. Design standard improved
序号
标准名称
name
Revised/new
National code for drainage design
室外排水设计规范
GB50014-2006(2011年版)
城市居住区规划设计规范 National code for residential area planning and
GB50180-93(2002年版) design
城市排水防涝设施普查数 Technical standard for drainage facilities survey
and data collection
据采集技术标准
National code for urban pluvial flood mitigation
城市内涝防治规划规范
planning
城镇暴雨与内涝防治技术 Technical standard for urban storm water
management and pluvial flood mitigation
标准
National code for urban drainage engineering
城市排水工程规划规范
GB50317-2000
planning
revised
7.
城市用地竖向规划规范
CJJ83-99
National code for urban vertical planning
revised
8.
城市绿地设计规范
GB50420-2007
National code for green space design
revised
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
revised
new
new
new
revised
2. Recent advances of storm water management
2.3 Standard, code and technical guidelines are under revised or newly released. Design
standard improved
• The national standard and guideline of storm water runoff control are being studied.
Local standards :

Code for Design of Storm water Management and Rainwater Harvesting Engineering in
Beijing 2013

Method for implementing management guideline of Comprehensive low impact development
and storm water utilization planning

Guide for Low Impact Development storm water system technology
2. Recent advances of storm water management
2.3 Standard, code and technical guidelines are under revised or
newly released. Design standard improved
Released time
The return period of urban drainage system
1975年
0.33-2
1987年
0.5-3
1997年
0.5-3,重要地区(important areas)2-5年
2006年
0.5-3,重要地区(important areas)3-5
2011年
1-3年,重要地区(important areas)3-5
The 2014 version of design return period of storm drainage pipes
Central area
Suburban area
Important central area
Underground, underpass,
low-lying square
Megacities
3~5
2~3
5~10
30~50
Big cities
2~5
2~3
5~10
20~30
Small and medium cities
2~3
2~3
3~5
10~20
2. Recent advances of storm water management
2.4 Dual drainage system concept widely accepted

minor system:Minor system is designed to
collect and discharge the common urban rainfall
water (design storm return period is usually 2 to
10 years), which is also called conventional
drainage system.

major system:Major system is designed to
discharge runoff water generated by heavy rain
water (usually 50-100 year return),and
dominated by drainage channel. Through the
drainage channel and deep drainage tunnel, the
runoff water exceeding the capacity of minor
system is discharged out of the city.
2. Recent advances of storm water management
2.5 New version of planning are under formulated and some practices already on the way
•
The new version of storm water drainage and local pluvial flood mitigation plan is
currently under formulated in more than 600 cities and and more than 1000
counties according to the technical guidelines issued by the MOHURD, which was
finished mainly by CAUPD.
•
About 14 planning projects of this type are currently carried out by CAUPD and
DHI China participated in it extensively.
•
All these planning are supposed to be finished in this year and then submitted to
MOHURD. CAUPD was commissioned to review and assess all the planning files
mainly from the technic perspectives.
2. Recent advances of storm water management
2.5 New version of planning are under formulated and some practices already on the way
Some cities including Shanghai,
Guangzhou and Wuhan now consider
deep tunnel as a possible solution to
address the Combined System
Overflows (CSOs) and local pluvial
flood simultaneously.
Guangzhou is already on the way of
construction and others are under
feasibility study.
Deep tunnel planning in Guangzhou
2. Recent advances of storm water management
2.5 New version of planning are under formulated and some practices already on the way
Many construction practices
are carried out in Beijing,
Shanghai, Shenzhen, Changde
and many other cities.
The approved comprehensive
plan is implemented and many
drainage facilities including
some large scale
retention/detention tank are
built.
2. Recent advances of storm water management
2.6 Hydraulic modeling and risk mapping are now extensively accepted and used
Rational method was widely used in China in the past for the
storm water system calculation while EU and US recommend the
hydraulic modeling especially for the large catchment (In EU, the
threshold is 200ha according to EN-752)
2. Recent advances of storm water management
2.6 Hydraulic modeling and risk mapping are now extensively accepted and used

In the Technical Guideline for the Formulation of Comprehensive Urban Storm Water
Drainage and Localized Pluvial Flooding Mitigation Planning, which was drafted by CAUPD,
Hydraulic modeling was required for drainage network assessment, flood risk mapping as well
as planning evaluation for catchment larger than 200ha, despite some strong opposition from
many experts.

The Guideline promote the booming of hydraulic modeling and pluvial flood risk mapping.
Some official software including DHI and HR Wallingford benefit a lot from it from both the
marketing and technic perspective.
2. Recent advances of storm water management
Shijiazhuang project
Modeling process
2. Recent advances of storm water management
2. Recent advances of storm water management
Risk mapping in Shijiazhuang Project
1
2
4
4
5
3
1
2
5
3
31
2. Recent advances of storm water management
2.7 Source control and LID concept widely accepted, much attention paid to non-structural
measures
Central park in Chongqing
Beichuan County in Sichuan Province
2. Recent advances of storm water management
LID practices in China
cutting curb
opening curb
Detention pond
Storm water wetland
Grassed swale
Grassed swale
Grassed detention basin
pervious conveyance
underground rain water
storage tank
3. Some preliminary thoughts about integrated urban water
management in China
3. Some preliminary thoughts about integrated urban water management in China
3.1 Rationale for integrated urban water management from urban planning perspective

Lot of urban planning exits in China. For urban water supply sector, we have urban
water resources plan, water supply engineering plan, reclaimed water plan or even
some desalination plan and rainwater harvesting plan.

These planning are mean to address the urban water supply in different
perspectives but they are not one-goal-oriented, and poor coordination between
different planning can be found. This issue need to be handled to make sure that
all these plan may address the water supply coordinately.
3. Some preliminary thoughts about integrated urban water management in China
3.1 Rationale for integrated urban water management from urban planning perspective

Another case is the urban water environment, which is related to wastewater
collection and treatment, first flush of rainwater, combined system overflows,
network misconnection, sewer leakage and so on. But currently the wastewater
drainage plan could not address the water environment pollution perfectly.

Obviously it’s not realistic or even possible to change the urban water management
framework, which is related directly to the different government sector’s power
and interest. But to integrate the various water related planning to formulate onegoal-oriented planning may be one possible solution.
3. Some preliminary thoughts about integrated urban water management in China
3.2 Advices for integrated urban water management from urban planning perspective
The current various urban water related plan can be integrated into urban water
supply plan, urban water environment pollution control plan, urban water safety plan
and urban water spatial plan.
Urban water
supply plan
Urban water
environment plan
Integrated urban
water plan
Urban water
safety plan
Urban water
spatial plan
3. Some preliminary thoughts about integrated urban water management in China
3.2 Advices for integrated urban water management from urban planning perspective
Urban water supply plan
Urban water supply plan should include urban water resources, water treatment,
water distribution, reclaimed water supply and rainwater harvesting.
Urban water environment pollution control plan
Urban water environment pollution control plan should include the wastewater
collection and treatment, sludge disposal, first flush pollution control, combined
system overflow, misconnection of storm water system and sewer system, sewer
leakage and et cl.
3. Some preliminary thoughts about integrated urban water management in China
3.2 Advices for integrated urban water management from urban planning perspective
Urban water safety plan
Urban water safety plan should include urban fluvial flooding, tidal flooding, storm
surge, urban local pluvial flooding, storm water drainage, underground water ponding
and wastewater flooding.
Urban water spatial plan
Urban water spatial plan should include the water landscape plan, waterfront area
conservation and develop plan.
4. Progress and Plans
4. Progress and plan
4.1 Progress
•
Inception workshop of China Europe Water Platform Co-lead 5th March
2014 in Beijing
•
Seminar in World Water Week 4th September 2014 in Stockholm
•
Inception workshop 13 October in Shanghai
•
NRW Theme day 14 October in Shanghai
•
Agreement on Urban flooding activities with Flood management Co-lead
•
Meeting between partners on future activities
•
Meeting between partners 2rd December 2014
•
Seminar on pricing for water 3rd December 2014
•
Participation in annual meeting 4th December
•
Draft work plan for 2015
4. Progress and plan
4.2 Plan
•
•
•
•
•
•
Urban water resources (water supply, water reuse, storm water
harvesting, blue and green cities)
Urban storm water management and flooding, sustainable urban
drainage system (low impact development)
Water in the urban landscape – living with the water and recreational
use of water
Urban water environment, protection and pollution control
Non-revenue water and pressure management in urban water supply
(saving water resources and energy for water supply)
Construction of Sponge City(LID measures Planning, promotion of
construction concept and technology)
4. Progress and plan
4.2 Plan
•
Participate in side event during World Water Forum, Korea 2015
•
Organise seminar during Annual meeting in Copenhagen, May 2015.
Topic could be related to policy and management of urban water
•
Inventory of European urban experiences to share: Examples from all
over Europe: Hamburg, Berlin, Rotterdam, Paris, Amsterdam,
Copenhagen, Stockholm etc. Starting point for joint projects and
identification of partners in China. Examples are key topics for IUWM
(NRW, Storm water, water in landscape, eco-cities, integrated solutions)
•
World Water Week in Stockholm, August, 2015
•
Seminar in China, September 2015
•
Seminar in November 2015 on urban flooding at International Water
Week in Amsterdam.
Thanks

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