Language Functions, Text-categories and Text-types

Language Functions, Text-categories and Texttypes
According to Buhler, the three main
functions of language are the expressive,
the informative (he called representation)
and the vocative (appeal) functions.
Expressive Function
• The main core of this expression is the mind of the
speaker, the writer, the originator of the utterence.
Utterence is to express the feeling irrespective of any
response. The characteristic of expressive text-types
• Serious imaginative literature (scientific, textbook,
• Authoritative
• Autobiography (industrial, article, publicity)
• Personal correspondence (Economic, memorandum,
popular fiction)
Informative function
• The core of this informative function of language
is external situation, the facts of a topic, reality
outside language, including reported ideas or
• The purpose of this informative function is
concerned with the topic of knowledge and
literary subject.
• The format of an informative text is often
standard: a textbook, a technical report, an
article in a newspaper or a periodical, a scientific
paper, a thesis and agenda of a meeting.
Vocative Function
• The core of this vocative function of language
is the readership. The use term ‘vocative’ for
the reader is to act, feel, or think, in fact to
react by the text.
• This vocative function of language has many
names such as, conotive, instrumental,
eperative and pragmatic.
The Aesthetic Function
• This is language designed to please the senses
through its actual or imagined sound and its
• The rhythm, balance and contrast of sentence,
clauses and words also play their part.
The Phatic Function
• This function is used for maintaining friendly
contract with the addressee rather than for
imparting foreign information.
• Apart from tone of voice occurs in the form of
standard phrases or phaticism such as in
spoken language, ‘How are you?’, ‘You know’,
‘Are you well?’, ‘Have a good week-end’, ‘See
you tomorrow’, ‘Lovely to see you’.
Metalingual Function
• This metalingual function indicates a language’s ability to explain,
name, and criticise its own features.
• If the language is specific and out of context, there are some
translations that will be used for translating a difficult text:
Literal translation (Nearest TL equivalents)
Faithful Translation (Contextual Meaning)
Semantic Translation (Aesthetic Value)
Adaptation (Plays comedy and poetry)
Free Translation (Translating the matter without the manner, or the
content without the form of the original)
Idiomatic Translation (Reproducing the message)
Communicative (Rendering the exact contextual meaning both
content and language)
Basic Sentence Pattern
• Simple Sentence
The manager is a manager of a company
Three young robbers are arrested
Linking Be
Verb (Linking-Be)
• /The man/ is /an electric engineer
(Lelaki itu seorang insinyur elektro)
• /The roses/ are/ very interesting to see/
(mawar-mawar merah itu sangat menarik untuk
Linking Verb
We are happy
Kami bahagia
The food tastes delicious
Makanan itu rasanya lezat
He becomes a doctor
Dia menjadi seorang dokter
• The linking verbs followed by adjectives are seem (tampak), appear
(tampak), look (tampak), feel (merasa), get (menjadi), smell
(berbau), taste (rasanya, terasa), become (menjadi), sound
(kedengaranya), grow (tumbuh, menjadi), keep (tetap, tinggal),
remain (tetap).
• Examples:
The hot metal becomes a bit wider
(logam panas itu menjadi sedikit lebih lebar)
The blooming flowers smell nice
(Bunga-bunga yang merekah itu berbau harum)
Intransitive verb (without object)
The verb like arrive, come, go, sleep, sit don’t need
S + Verb + Adverb
• The director of the company arrived ten minutes
• Many accidents often happened at this junction.
Transitive verb (need an object)
• The verbs like buy, give, sell, bring, take, read,
write, make, send, expand, pay, offer need an
• Examples:
 Sun microsystem expands its market to Asian
 The sun gives out ultra violet ray to the earth
Introductory “IT”
• It has a function as a subject. It shows like times,
months, days, seasons, distances, and years.
It is Saturday.
it is very cold in winter.
It takes five miles to walk.
It can be replaced by using to infinitive or clause.
To do the test is very easy
who comes first is the winner
That you are beautiful is true
Introductory “There”
Thirty students are in the classroom. =
There are thirty students in the classroom.
A car is in the garage.=
There is a car in the garage.
1. The African elephant weighs between six to
seven tons.
2. There are five processes in the rating in the
rating of TV.
3. Container in the graveyards can be a potential
source for the spreading of DHF to man.
4. The modern romance languages include the
national languages Italian, French, Spanish,
Portuguese, and Rumanian.
5. Today the development of information
technology is extremely fast.
6. Washing machine has greatly helped
housewives lessen their burden at home.

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