Language Functions, Text-categories and Texttypes According to Buhler, the three main functions of language are the expressive, the informative (he called representation) and the vocative (appeal) functions. Expressive Function • The main core of this expression is the mind of the speaker, the writer, the originator of the utterence. Utterence is to express the feeling irrespective of any response. The characteristic of expressive text-types are: • Serious imaginative literature (scientific, textbook, notices) • Authoritative statements (commercial, paper, propaganda) • Autobiography (industrial, article, publicity) • Personal correspondence (Economic, memorandum, popular fiction) Informative function • The core of this informative function of language is external situation, the facts of a topic, reality outside language, including reported ideas or theories. • The purpose of this informative function is concerned with the topic of knowledge and literary subject. • The format of an informative text is often standard: a textbook, a technical report, an article in a newspaper or a periodical, a scientific paper, a thesis and agenda of a meeting. Vocative Function • The core of this vocative function of language is the readership. The use term ‘vocative’ for the reader is to act, feel, or think, in fact to react by the text. • This vocative function of language has many names such as, conotive, instrumental, eperative and pragmatic. The Aesthetic Function • This is language designed to please the senses through its actual or imagined sound and its metaphor. • The rhythm, balance and contrast of sentence, clauses and words also play their part. The Phatic Function • This function is used for maintaining friendly contract with the addressee rather than for imparting foreign information. • Apart from tone of voice occurs in the form of standard phrases or phaticism such as in spoken language, ‘How are you?’, ‘You know’, ‘Are you well?’, ‘Have a good week-end’, ‘See you tomorrow’, ‘Lovely to see you’. Metalingual Function • This metalingual function indicates a language’s ability to explain, name, and criticise its own features. • If the language is specific and out of context, there are some translations that will be used for translating a difficult text: Literal translation (Nearest TL equivalents) Faithful Translation (Contextual Meaning) Semantic Translation (Aesthetic Value) Adaptation (Plays comedy and poetry) Free Translation (Translating the matter without the manner, or the content without the form of the original) Idiomatic Translation (Reproducing the message) Communicative (Rendering the exact contextual meaning both content and language) Basic Sentence Pattern • Simple Sentence Sentence subject predicate The manager is a manager of a company Three young robbers are arrested Linking Be Subject Pronoun/ Noun Verb (Linking-Be) Is/am/are Was/were Complemet Adjective/ adverb/Noun • /The man/ is /an electric engineer (Lelaki itu seorang insinyur elektro) • /The roses/ are/ very interesting to see/ (mawar-mawar merah itu sangat menarik untuk dilihat) Linking Verb We are happy Kami bahagia The food tastes delicious Makanan itu rasanya lezat He becomes a doctor Dia menjadi seorang dokter • The linking verbs followed by adjectives are seem (tampak), appear (tampak), look (tampak), feel (merasa), get (menjadi), smell (berbau), taste (rasanya, terasa), become (menjadi), sound (kedengaranya), grow (tumbuh, menjadi), keep (tetap, tinggal), remain (tetap). • Examples: The hot metal becomes a bit wider (logam panas itu menjadi sedikit lebih lebar) The blooming flowers smell nice (Bunga-bunga yang merekah itu berbau harum) Intransitive verb (without object) The verb like arrive, come, go, sleep, sit don’t need object. S + Verb + Adverb Examples: • The director of the company arrived ten minutes late. • Many accidents often happened at this junction. Transitive verb (need an object) • The verbs like buy, give, sell, bring, take, read, write, make, send, expand, pay, offer need an object. • Examples: Sun microsystem expands its market to Asian countries. The sun gives out ultra violet ray to the earth Introductory “IT” • It has a function as a subject. It shows like times, months, days, seasons, distances, and years. Examples: It is Saturday. it is very cold in winter. It takes five miles to walk. It can be replaced by using to infinitive or clause. examples: To do the test is very easy who comes first is the winner That you are beautiful is true Introductory “There” Example: Thirty students are in the classroom. = There are thirty students in the classroom. A car is in the garage.= There is a car in the garage. 1. The African elephant weighs between six to seven tons. 2. There are five processes in the rating in the rating of TV. 3. Container in the graveyards can be a potential source for the spreading of DHF to man. 4. The modern romance languages include the national languages Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Rumanian. 5. Today the development of information technology is extremely fast. 6. Washing machine has greatly helped housewives lessen their burden at home.