CY POP 22 and Unit 304: Understand the speech, language, and communication needs of children and young people with behavioural, social and emotional difficulties Learning Outcome 1 Understand the links between language, behaviour, emotional and social development difficulties Speech, language and communication – a reminder Speech Language Communication Pre-session activity: Ages and stages of language development • Talk with a child or young person you work with. Try to observe them in two different situations. Note down examples of their speech, language and communication • Using an ‘ages and stages’ resource, decide if their speech, language and communication skills are as you would expect What are speech language and communication needs (SLCN)? • Most children follow the expected pattern of development for their speech, language and communication at the expected times. Some, however, do not. These are described as having speech, language and communication needs (SLCN) What are behaviour, social and emotional difficulties? Children and young people may be: Withdrawn or isolated Irrational Disruptive and disturbing Over familiar Unable to interact appropriately Impulsive Facing complex special needs Hyperactive and lacking concentration Self-harming Anxious or frightened They may have a diagnosis: • • • • • • • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Autistic Spectrum disorder Attachment Disorder Conduct disorder Depression Tourette syndrome Social/ school phobia Associations between SLCN and BESD Children • May develop behaviour, emotional and social and young difficulties people • May be misidentified as having BESD with SLCN • Are more likely to have SLCN Children • Are particularly likely to have social and young communication difficulties people • Often have undetected SLCN with BESD • May have reduced opportunities How SLCN may affect behavioural, emotional and social development in children and young people You need language to; • • • • understand emotions and emotion words understand other people’s thoughts and feelings think things though and decide what to do help with self control Children and young people with SLCN are at risk of developing BESD Over fifty per cent of children who have SLCN develop behaviour, social and emotional difficulties and mental health difficulties of all kinds. Activity 1a - Children and young people with SLCN are at risk of developing BESD • Choose one of the examples of a difficulty with speech, language and communication. You could use other examples if you prefer. • In groups, discuss what you think the impacts of this need might be on a child or young person’s behaviour, social and emotional development. Activity 1b - How could difficulties with the social use of language impact on interactions? How could difficulties with the social use of language impact on interactions? After the activity discuss; • What are the implications for children with these sorts of communication difficulties? • Consider the effects on their social interactions, friendships and school work. • What might other children think of them and what effects could that have? SLCN can appear to be BESD For example: • When a child or young person doesn't follow instructions • If they don’t explain themselves well (it might seem like they’re choosing not to but perhaps they can’t) • If they have poor social communication skills, (the listener maybe offended or confused) Why is behaviour a form of communication? We influence people and our environment through communication – So what if we can’t use words to do that? – What if the ways we communicate are not acceptable to others? – What if we can’t understand what others are trying to say to us? Children and young people with BESD are more likely to have SLCN The number of children with BESD and communication problems seems to be ten times higher than in the general population And their SLCN is often unrecognised Incidence of SLCN in children with BESD Activity 1c How many have BESD+SLCN in your setting? • How many CYP you work with have BESD? • Given the incidence of SLCN in BESD, how many of them might have SLCN which has not been unidentified? • What could you do to help identify them? How behaviour difficulties can affect speech, language and communication development Children and young people with BESD; • Might either withdraw or be rejected so they have fewer opportunities to learn to interact. • Often have limited attention skills, so all learning including learning language can be affected • Often experience powerful feelings which can impair thinking and learning CYP with BESD might be particularly likely to have difficulty with social communication skills Change how they communicate based on situation and who they’re talking to Use and understand facial expression gesture and tone of voice Know how to start a conversation and get attention in the right way Child/ young person Express ideas in a way that will make sense to someone else Understand creative or unusual ways to use language Activity 1d: The effect of behaviour, social or emotional difficulties on speech, language and communication development Work in pairs: • You should each think of a child or young person you know and make a note of their behaviour, social and/or emotional difficulties, being as clear as you can. • Swap your outlines with each other. • Now consider how these difficulties might affect each child or young person’s speech, language and communication development. Associations between BESD and SLCN • The first sign of many mental health conditions is that language is slow to develop • CYP with ADHD and Conduct Disorder often have social communication difficulties • CYP with ADHD may need extra time to understand complex language • In ASD; SLCN is part of the diagnosis So SLCN+BESD can result in: • Frustration- ‘I can’t get people to understand me!’ • Being misunderstood- ‘they think I won’t explain, but I can’t’ or ‘they want me to join in, but I don’t know how’. • Not being able to explain how they feel-’I’m OK’ • Problems thinking about what to do, considering consequences and stopping just reacting e.g. ‘if I hit him it’ll hurt and I’ll get in trouble.’ • Not being able to join in and learn better communication and interaction skills Activity 1e • Look at the activity in the learner materials. • Consider if any the statements relate to a child or young person you are working with. • Can you think of any other reasons why children and young people with SLCN may develop difficulties with their behaviour, social or emotional development? Transfer Transfer into into practice practice 11 • One thing I'll think differently about... • Something I'll tell someone else... • Something I'll do differently.... Learning outcome 2 Understand how to support positive speech, language and communication development for children and young people with behavioural, emotional and social difficulties Activity 2a: SLCN barriers to learning behavioural, social and emotional skills From what you have already learnt • Why might children and young people with SLCN find it difficult to learn behavioural, social and emotional skills? • Consider barriers within – Learning – Making friends – Interactions with adults – Interactions with peers Activity 2b: Positive interactions? What sort of interactions help children and young people learn communication, behavioural, emotional and interaction skills? In a small group, look at the interactions listed in your learner handbook. Decide which of these are effective adult strategies to develop communication, behavioural, emotional and interaction skills? Effective adult strategies to develop communication, behavioural, emotional and interaction skills Positive and warm interactions; smiles humour and eye contact Talking about emotions as they happen, e.g.” he looks upset look at his face” Taking equal turns Listen and follow CYP’s lead Talking about what CYP are interested in Comment on what the CYP is doing Accept their ideas Effective adult strategies to develop communication, behavioural, emotional and interaction skills 2 Modelling the language and behaviour you’d like to see Specific praise for pro social behaviour, e.g. ‘great you gave him a turn’ Praise for effort, strategies or choices Explaining why a behaviour is not OK and what you’d like them to be doing, e.g. “ no, that hurt him, say, ‘can I have a go” Contingent consequences, immediate and relevant to the situation, e.g. “If you snatch you can’t have the toy” Developing communication skills in children with BESD Teach the language you’d rather they were using Eg ‘can I have a turn?’ ‘this is really difficult for me’ Develop a broad emotion vocabulary Eg: ‘I’m fed up – irritated – annoyed – livid’ Make sure they understand what’s likely to happen in situations they find tricky Increase opportunities to practise communication skills Reward good communication Activity 2c Developing communication skills in children with BESD- How could you put these into practice? At play? While managing behaviour? How could you put these ideas into practice? In conversation? In class? Helping children and young people learn how to interact with each other • Promote on-task verbal interaction between CYP. Set co operative goals and offer joint problem solving activities. • Provide opportunities to work with individuals with good social communication skills • Make rules explicit; “its important to take turns, because.....” • Notice and prompt e.g “does J want to make a point?” Helping children and young people learn how to interact with each other • Rephrase or restate if there is a problem, e.g. “I think x meant” • Assign specific roles e.g. with LEGO; architect, finder and builder • Positive peer reporting; work towards a whole group reward for noticing a peer’s positive behaviour Activity 2d: Communication friendly? True of false? ? Lighting is irrelevant Lots of chatter makes for a stimulating environment Background music can help children focus Encourage listening skills by avoiding visual support Have visual displays which define and illustrate key vocabulary Be explicit about routines and expectations Activity 2d: possible answers Lighting is irrelevant Lots of chatter makes for a stimulating environment Back ground music can help children focus Listening skills develop when you avoid visual support Have visual displays which define and illustrate key vocabulary Be explicit about routines and expectations Activity 2e: What happens in your setting to support CYP with SLCN and BESD? Observe in context or on video: • Adult strategies to develop communication, behavioural, emotional and interaction skills • Opportunities CYP have to learn communication skills • And how to interact with each other • How the environment facilitates communication • And the direct effects of these on CYP Transfer into practice 2 Following your observation • Which area would you like to develop? • How could you do this • In collaboration with......? Learning Outcome 3 Understand how to adapt strategies and approaches to behavioural, emotional and social development to meet speech, language and communication needs Effective approaches to BESD/mental health difficulties Systemic Considers child/young person in context of family, school, wider system of people who support them and how they all interact. Behavioural Assumes behaviour is learnt through reinforcement, so modifies behaviour through rewards and sanctions and identifying triggers. Cognitive Recognises how thoughts influence feelings and actions. Reframes negative and unhelpful thoughts, there is a focus on the here and now Therapeutic Attachment theory, how past experiences can continue to affect us, the conscious and unconscious effect of emotions Activity 3a Effective approaches to BESD/mental health difficulties Which are used in your setting? Which do you find most useful? Are they modified for CYP with BESD+SLCN? Activity 3b - How are the needs of CYP with BESD+SLCN reflected in.... • Behaviour policies: e.g. De-escalation; managing behavioural issues as they occur; Debriefing behavioural incidents • Planning: e.g. opportunities to develop communication skills; incorporating speech and language therapy targets into planning; adult interaction strategies • Observations e.g. developing adult skills in interaction Can adult communication contribute to BESD? Think of a young person or observe; When the language is complex Do they complete the work successfully ? How do they behave? How well do they listen? If you simplify the language does anything change? Teach clarification skills.... If someone • Speaks too fast • Speaks too quietly • Doesn’t give us enough time • • • • We could say… Can you say that a bit slower? Could you say it louder please? Can you say that again please? Uses complicated grammar What does that mean? Doesn't give enough information Which pen do I use? Gives an instruction that's I can't remember all that too long Uses unfamiliar words What does that word 'precipitate' mean? Activity 3c: Managing behaviour Think of a recent situation where a CYP was not behaving as you would expect What did you do or say.... Activity 3c: If the CYP had SLCN these might have helped • Listening and giving them plenty of time to think about what you said. • Using vocabulary and sentences which they can understand. • Providing visual support to help them understand the sequence of events or actions and consequences. • Giving opportunities to ask for clarification for example teaching questions such as “I don’t know what ‘consequence ’ means” • Explaining what you wanted them to do or say • Demonstrating open questions Transfer to practice: 3 • Are there any areas of practice, systems or policy you’d like to amend to reflect the needs of CYP with SEBD+SLCN? – Planning? – Observation? – Behaviour policy ? » Teaching the skills to behave well » Managing behaviour as it occurs? » Debriefing behavioural incidents ? • What is the first step towards this? Learning Outcome 4 Know how to work with others in order to support the speech, language and communication development of children and young people with behavioural, emotional and social development needs Activity 4a List the stresses there might be on a family with a CYP who has BESD+SLCN Stress related to BESD? Other stresses Family Other stresses Stress related to SLCN Working in collaboration with families • Listen carefully • Liaise with families, involve them as equal partners • Use appropriate forms of communication, verbal and non verbal, in managing relationships, conflict and negotiation • Respect their situation, be non judgemental • Inform families of progress and any potential problems • NB Consider the range of family structures and backgrounds in your setting and the importance of respecting and valuing diversity • NB Remember how family beliefs, attitudes and values may affect behaviour, self-reliance and identity Activity 4b Who does what? Aims to reduce psychological distress and to enhance and promote psychological wellbeing. Assesses using a Supports children variety of methods who lack confidence including or self-esteem as psychometric tests, well as having poor interviews and direct social and/or observation behaviour skills Develops evidencebased SLCN intervention plans Assesses speech language and communication skills Works with groups of children with BESD Activity 4b Who does what – possible answers Speech and Language Therapist Clinical Psychologist Behaviour Support Worker Assesses speech language and communication skills Assesses using a Supports children who variety of methods lack confidence or selfincluding psychometric esteem as well as tests, interviews and having poor social direct observation and/or behaviour skills Develops evidencebased SLCN intervention plans Aims to reduce psychological distress and to enhance and promote psychological well-being. Works with groups of children with BESD Many others could also be involved... People • Learning mentors • Teaching assistants • Home-school worker • Behaviour support teacher • Education welfare officer • Social workers • Educational Psychologists Services • Behaviour and Education Support teams • Youth offending teams • Child and adolescent mental health teams • Police services • Youth services • Voluntary agencies Activity 4c Increasing collaboration ? What opportunities are there to learn from other professionals and share your own expertise? – Observation – Demonstration – Joint supervision – Discussion about roles and expectations – Joint problem analysis, action planning and implementation – Time to reflect? How might this benefit CYP and their families ? Transfer to practise: 4 Who would you like to understand better? Who would you like to meet with to find out more about their role/situation? How could you set up meetings with a professional or a family and perhaps spend some time with them? Hello 2011 is the National Year of Communication ‘Hello’ is a national campaign run by The Communication Trust, complementing the Government’s commitment to support children with speech, language and communication needs. Please visit www.hello.org.uk for more information on how you and your setting can help improve the communication skills of children and young people – so that they can live their life to the full.