1 SUSTAINABLE PRODUCT & PROCESS DEVELOPMENT ISQA 511 Dr. Mellie Pullman Overview 2 Design for “…” Protocols Herman Miller Case Tool Demonstration EQFD (QFDE) Sustainability Product and Process Protocols and Frameworks 3 1970s & 1980s 1990s 2000s • Pollution Control • Pollution Prevention • • • • • Cradle to Cradle • Life Cycle Analysis • Biomimicry Eco-Efficiency Design for Environment The Natural Step Industrial Ecology Design for… 4 Manufacturing and Assembly Disassembly Recycle Reuse Logistics Or Design for Sustainable Supply Chain Management Sustainable Design & Supply Chain 5 Aspects of sustainability can pervade all design activities affecting the product during its life time: Social, economic, and environmental aspects of Raw materials Production Packaging Transportation Redistribution Disassembly Recycling Measures (Carbon Footprint, LCA, energy, water, etc.) and Methods (EQFD) 6 Example: Ikea’s Air Hunting Competition Glimma tea candle Internal competition to reduce unnecessary air in their product packaging to lower logistics cost and increase efficiency in transportation and warehouse Air= Packaging Space 7 How does this effect: Transportation Vehicles Warehouse Environment loads Design for Environment Flow and Support Tools 8 DfE Project Development* Quantitative design review on sustainability (LCA) Production Project Concept Development (QFDE Tool) Conceptual Design Design Detail Qualitative design review on sustainability aspects * Initially, a philosophy or framework may create guiding principles such as C2C or Natural Step Cradle to Cradle Philosophy 9 Biological Technical Manufacturing & Assembly plants soil nutrients animals decomposes Materials Product Customer Use Environmental Quality Function Deployment 10 Quality Function Deployment is a product development tool that comes out of Japan (House of Quality) Typically used to optimally meet customer needs Converts their needs (CN) to measurable engineering characteristics/metrics (EC/EMs) Targets are then set for EC/EMs Second stage translates the EC/EMs to specific components parts and design features. (third and forth stage sets up manufacturing process and production process) EQFD accounts for environmental needs and characteristics Why use this tool? 11 Team approach: pulls designers, marketing, engineers, and process development people together to look at the impact of their decisions on the final product, Systematic: considers environmental impact of design choices & alternatives in an orderly way, Sequential development: customer & environmental needs are considered up front and trickle through system, Customer & environment needs, engineering metrics, components, manufacturing process, & production process. Proven track record of success with new product development. Fundamental Design Objectives 12 Maximize customer satisfaction (using customer and other stakeholders) What are the customers needs for the product both functionally and environmentally? Minimize cost of use Minimize environmental impacts Sample of Environmental Needs and Engineering Metrics 13 Environmental Needs Less material usage Less energy & water consumption Easy to transport and store Easy to process and assemble High durability Easy to reuse Easy to disassemble & sort Easy to maintain Easy to compact Safe to incinerate Easy to dispose of or safe to landfill Harmless to biosphere Safe emissions Environmental Engineering Metrics Weight Volume Number of parts Variety of materials Likelihood of getting dirty or oxidizing Hardness Physical lifetime Energy consumption Rate of recycled material Sensory impact (noise, visual, etc.) Emissions mass (air, water, soil) Biodegradability Material Toxicity Class Demonstration of EQFD 14 EuP: Energy Using Products EU direction requires EuPs to incorporate lifecycle-based environmental considerations into product development process Other criteria that you should consider? Green Product Design for Hairdryer Life Cycle Analysis Scope 15 Disposal at end of life Extracting & processing raw materials Recycling Manufacturing Useful life, maintenance & reuse Packaging Transportation & Distribution Voice of Customer issues 16 Typical Needs (pick 3) Dries quickly Quiet Comfortable to hold Less energy consumption Operates easily Reliable Portlable Needs related to Environment (pick 3) Easy to disassemble Easy to smash Easy to sort Easy to recycle Safe to incinerate Safe to landfill Rate the importance of each on a scale of 1-5 for your 6 items Engineering Metrics Maximum Importance Customer Importance Relative Weight Visual Weight influence Row # Customer Needs or Requirements 17 1 ||||||| 0.16 5 5 Dries quickly 2 |||||| 0.13 4 Quiet 3 |||||| 0.13 4 Comfortable to Hold 4 |||| 0.09 3 Less Energy Consumption 5 ||||||| 0.16 5 Easy to Dissesemble 6 |||| 0.09 3 Easy to Smash 7 ||||||| 0.16 5 Easy to sort 8 |||| 0.09 3 Easy to Recycle Engineering Metrics for producers & environmental view 18 Hair dryer EMs(pick 3) Air flow Air temperature Weight Hardness Physical lifetime Number of parts Environmental EMs(pick 3) Rate of recyclable materials Rate of standardized components Number of materials Amount of energy consumed Biodegrability Toxicity of Materials 9 Comfortable to Hold 9 3 Less Energy Consumption 9 Easy to Dissesemble 3 1 9 Easy to Smash 1 1 9 Easy to sort Easy to Recycle 19 9 9 9 9 9 rate of recycled materials amount of energy consumed physical lifetime 9 hardness Quiet number of materials 9 Number of parts Air temperature 9 Weight Air Flow Engineering Metrics Dries quickly Customer Needs or Requirements Looking at your weight-importance scores 20 What is more important measurement? What should the producer focus on here? Other Details of Interest 21 Are any of these related factors (roof of house)? What problems or opportunities might this reveal? Right side of house and basement, competitor’s situation > strategic insights?