Good - Pearson UK

Report
Good Assessment by Design
International GCSE and GCE Comparative
Analyses
Dr. Rose Clesham
Put into context:
we have looked at education systems that
use high stakes external assessments for 16
and 18 year olds, in terms of:
•
Contextual national characteristics and factors
underpinning these educational systems
•
How their curriculum and content standards are
defined and operate
•
How their summative national assessments are
designed and their focus
85%
81%
83%
77%
World economy
The Assessment Analysis
To provide comparisons between UK based GCSEs and GCEs, PISA tests,
and selected high performing PISA jurisdictions in terms of:
•
Their assessment structures and demands in summative assessments
•
The use of question types
•
Subject specific areas of focus (eg. use of context in maths, source based
focus, particular skills)
•
Providing examples of good assessment practice
In order to increase our global understanding, and inform the design
of WCQ qualifications and assessments.
Cross Business Research Approach
100+ people involved
•
Internal/external subject team workshops
•
Workshop subject groups agreed on and standardised
subject definitions of mapping categories
•
2-4 raters at item level in each subject
•
Results aggregated rather than a true score
judgement
The Methodology
Content Standards
• Based on Uniform Content
Standards (Porter, DfE) that
can be applied internationally,
eg. for Physics
Cognitive Operations
• Based on the focus and
type of question. These are
similar to, but give more
detail than Assessment
Objectives – and can be
used to compare national
and international
assessments (using a
variation of Porter)
Cognitive Demand
• Based on considerations of
how content standards,
assessment questions and
mark schemes are written
and applied – mainly to do
with complexity and
linkage (using a new model
that incorporates Bloom,
Webb, Pollitt, Biggs and
Collis)
Outcomes
For example, Content Standards in Mathematics at 16
Outcomes
For example, Content Standards in Mathematics at 16
Outcomes
For example, Content Standards in Mathematics at 16
Outcomes
For example, Content Standards in Mathematics at 16
Outcomes
For example, Content Standards in Mathematics
Outcomes
For example, Content Standards in Mathematics at 16
Cognitive operations in Science (at 16)
Cognitive operations
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Apply concepts / make connections
Analyse information
Demonstrate understanding
Perform procedures
Pi
sa
G
na
l
tio
er
na
In
t
SQ
A
CS
E
SE
SW
N
iG
C
on
g
H
En
gl
a
Ko
n
g
nd
Memorize
Proportion of Lower to Higher Order Cognitive Operations in
Science
70%
30%
High order science cognitive operations: % differences from the mean, by
country
Cognitive demand in Science
52%
44%
4%
% difference from mean of low demand items in science, by country
% difference from mean of medium demand items in science, by country
% difference from mean of high demand items in science, by country
Dendrogram showing family relationships between Maths
assessments
Porter’s Alignment Indices in Maths
Why does all of this matter?
Mean task input as percentiles of the 1960 task distribution
Economy-wide measures of routine and non-routine task input (US)
65
Routine manual
60
Nonroutine manual
55
Routine cognitive
50
Nonroutine analytic
45
40
1960
Nonroutine
interactive
1970
1980
1990
2002
The dilemma of schools:
The skills that are easiest to teach and test are also the ones that are
easiest to digitise, automate and outsource
(Levy and Murnane)
Education and assessments needs to prepare
students:
•To deal with more rapid change than ever before
•For jobs that have not yet been created
•Using techniques that have not yet been invented
•To solve problems that we don’t yet know will arise
Overall conclusions of our research:
•
Appropriate content representation is a key assessment issue.
•
In general, lower order cognitive operations dominate assessments.
•
Higher order cognitive operations are not well represented in assessments, for example problem
solving skills in maths and applying concepts and making connections in science.
•
Cognitive operations and cognitive demand often work independently of each other and
therefore need to be actively designed into assessments.
•
A range of different question types was evident. The analysis showed that although more closed
question types can assess a range of cognitive operations and demands, they are less effective
than more open responses.
Two fundamental points …
•
No country’s assessment system was perfect either in design or in outcome- however, some
are clearly more designed and comprehensive than others
•
Good assessment doesn’t happen by chance, it has to be carefully designed and
developed to assess the knowledge and skills we want and value.
Implications
This work has enabled us to:
•Evaluate assessments using a set of common criteria
•Make empirical and standardised judgements
•Contrast and compare
As our qualifications now move into developmental phases, we
need to ensure that they:
• Reflect intended curriculum aims and content standards
• Assess the knowledge and skills that will be needed for our learners
• Are informed by international best practice
• And comparable with best practice
• And will be more reliable, valid and discriminating in terms of design, focus and
. content
.
Thank you
[email protected]

similar documents