Unit 1 - National Union of Teachers

Report
The Year of the Curriculum:
Life Without Levels
The programme consists of a Bridging Unit and five further units:
(Have you done the Bridging Unit?)
Bridging Unit
What is the
new
Coming to terms
National The
Curriculum
Measuring
Making usewith the new
new
National
what we
value
of
assessment
National
Curriculum
asking for?
© Curriculum Foundation
Curriculum
in context
The tools
of the
trade
1
The Year of the Curriculum:
Life Without Levels
Unit 1
Measuring what
we value
© Curriculum Foundation
2
There are two key questions:
And, what were all those things
WillOh,
lifeand
without
there’s
levels
another
be better
key or
that we said we valued more than
question:
worse?
levels?
(And better or worse for whom?)
© Curriculum Foundation
3
If you are too young to recognise the
reference
(or the
any Levels
of the people
above!),
try:
What have
ever done
for us?
www.youtube.com/watch?v=ExWfh6sGyso
© Curriculum Foundation
4
The many
For
idea that
schools,
the Levels
life hasmight
revolved
have
around
been
doing
Levels.
something
Never mind
for usJohn
rather
Cleese’s
than
to us
question
has never
– the
really
realbeen
question
very for
most schools has been:
prevalent.
‘How many Levels progress have they
It has has often been more a matter of:
made?’
‘How many sub-levels have they made
And:
this year (term, week, lesson!)’
‘Will this be enough to satisfy Ofsted?’
© Curriculum Foundation
5
The national
curriculum in
England
Key stages 1 and 2 framework document
September 2013
The national
curriculum in
England
So, how are we going to
know whether or not our
But
what
now?to do
What
are
we
going
pupils have made the right
with all
that
expensive
number
of
levels
(or subEven more
software
thatnational
tracks our
levels)
Theprogress?
new
importantly
….
pupils’
progress
in terms
curriculum
does
not
And, come
tolevels?
that, how are
of
have
any
Ofsted
going
to ‘Levels”.
know?
Key stages 3 and 4 framework document
December 2014
© Curriculum Foundation
6
* This is in the Ofsted publication:
Ofsted* reminds us that:
Note for inspectors: use of assessment information during
“National
levels will be removed
inspections incurriculum
2014/15
from September 2014.”
You can find the full document at:
(Except
for Y2 and Y6 where the SATS will still be based on
https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachme
the
old levels for one more year in 2015)
nt_data/file/379632/Note_20for_20inspectors_20_20use_20of_20assessment_20information_20during_20inspections
_20in_202014-15.pdf
© Curriculum Foundation
7
The DFE States:
“As part of our reforms to the national curriculum, the current system of ‘levels’
used to report children’s attainment and progress will be removed from
September 2014 and will not be replaced.
By removing levels we will allow teachers greater flexibility in the way that they
plan and assess pupils’ learning.
The programmes of study within the new National Curriculum (NC) set out
expectations at the end of each key stage, and all maintained schools will be free
to develop a curriculum relevant to their pupils that teaches this content. The
curriculum must include an assessment system which enables schools to check
what pupils have learned and whether they are on track to meet expectations at
the end of the key stage”
© Curriculum Foundation
8
“In 2014/15, most schools, academies and free schools will have
historic performance data expressed in national curriculum levels,
except for those pupils in Year 1.
But, what will Ofsted expect to see instead?
“Inspectors will not expect to see a particular
Inspectors may find that schools are tracking attainment and
assessment
system in place and will recognise that
progress using a mixture of measures for some, or all, year groups
schools
are still
towards
Thesubjects.
answer
is inworking
the same
“Notesfull
forimplementation
Inspectors”
and
of
their preferred
approach.”
document
we referenced
earlier:
As now, inspectors will use a range of evidence to make
judgements, including by looking at test results, pupils’ work and
pupils’ own perceptions of their learning.”
© Curriculum Foundation
9
So, Ofsted
do we say
is not
“Hooray,
expecting
we can
to see
getany
rid particular
of levels - and
system will
Ofsted
being
now
used
never
– and
know
schools
whether
are expected
anyone has
to
develop
made
two
“alevels
preferred
of progress
approach”!
or not” ?
The
DFEnow
is saying:
We can
use whatever is our “preferred
“Beyond
theBut
tests
at Key
Stage
(KS) 2 and
GCSEs at
approach”.
what
is our
“preferred
approach”?
KS4, it will be for schools to decide how they assess
pupils'
progress.”
And what
about John Cleese’s question – was there
anything about the Levels that were useful and that
Therefore,
it’s official!
Welightly?
don’t have to use Levels.
we should not
discard so
There is no prescription from Ofsted. We can use
And where
do we start?
whatever approach
we “prefer”.
© Curriculum Foundation
10
The national
curriculum in
England
Key stages 1 and 2 framework document
September 2013
The national
curriculum in
England
Key stages 3 and 4 framework document
December 2014
The new National Curriculum is the
obvious starting point.
Of course, it is set out differently from
the old one – and the Programmes of
Study take the form of learning
expectations. These specify the learning
expected from pupils at the end of a
particular periods – and so form the
basis of assessment to be carried out at
the end of those periods.
Here’s an example for Y5 Science:
© Curriculum Foundation
11
Year 5 Science
© Curriculum Foundation
12
The national
curriculum in
England
Key stages 1 and 2 framework document
September 2013
The national
curriculum in
England
Key stages 3 and 4 framework document
December 2014
For example:
However,
the periods for which learning
expectations are specified vary across the
• In Maths and Science, there are
subjects and years.
specifications for the end of each year from
Y1 to Y6, and then at the end of the key
So they do not provide a very satisfactory basis
stage for KS3 and KS4
for assessing progress over regular periods of
•time.
In English there are end of year specifications
for Y1 and Y2, then specifications for Lower
In some
cases,
the
whole
key stages.
Primary
(end
ofperiods
Y4) andare
Upper
Primary
(end
How
going
to show
“two
of for
ofare
Y6),we
then
at the
end of
the levels
key stage
progress”
KS3 andwith
4 these, when there is only one
“level” for the whole key stage? Either pupils
•meet
Forthe
all expectations
other subjects,
arestage,
only end
of
forthere
the key
or they
key There’s
stage specifications.
don’t.
no higher level.
© Curriculum Foundation
13
The national
curriculum in
England
There are two key implications here:
Key stages 1 and 2 framework document
September 2013
The national
curriculum in
England
Key stages 3 and 4 framework document
Firstly, these end of key stage (or even
end of year) specifications do not lend
themselves to monitoring progress over
a short period.
So how is anyone going to monitor
progress within a key stage when there
are only end-of-key-stage statements?
December 2014
© Curriculum Foundation
14
The national
curriculum in
England
Key stages 1 and 2 framework document
September 2013
The national
curriculum in
England
Secondly, because the specifications are
both learning outcomes and
programmes of study, the learning
outcomes are related to the content of
the programmes.
To understand the implications of this, it
is necessary to first remember how the
old Level Descriptions operated.
Key stages 3 and 4 framework document
December 2014
© Curriculum Foundation
15
The interesting thing about the Level
Descriptions as a system was that it was
unique in the world by being distinct
from the curriculum specification – and
this give them a unique function.
Because they were separate from the
Programmes of Study, the Level
Descriptions could be applied to any
aspect of the curriculum content. This
meant that pupils studying the same
content could do so at a different level.
Let’s look at what that means.
© Curriculum Foundation
16
Having separate programmes of study and Level
Descriptions in the old curriculum meant that all
learners in a class could follow the same programme
(content) – but could do so at different levels.
This was its unique feature. And this is how it
worked:
© Curriculum Foundation
17
For example, the Programme of
Study for Key Stage 1 Geography
said that pupils should study:
“ a locality either in the United
Kingdom or overseas that has
physical and/or human features that
contrast with those in the locality of
the school”
Most schools interpreted this as a
“village study” because this was
suggested by one of the old QCA
Units.
© Curriculum Foundation
18
But,
what
were the
pupils
learning
during these
studies?
Whatof
were
So the
whole
class
could
undertake
the same
aspect
thethe
“expected
learning
outcomes”?
The Programmes
Study specified
Programme
of Study:
the study
of a contrasting
locality.what was
to be studied, but not the learning that was expected.
There
was a very similar requirement at Key Stage 2, phrased
For these, we needed to look at the Level Descriptions.
more generally as the study of “a locality in the United
Kingdom”.
Again,
whole
class can follow
the
If we take those
parts the
of the
Level Descriptions
relevant
to same
the study of
places,
we find:
“content”
© Curriculum Foundation
19
Level 1:
They make observations about .. localities
Level 2:
They describe .. features of places
Level 3:
They compare and contrast features of different localities
Level 4:
They recognise geographical patterns in understanding
places
Level 5:
They use geographical language to explain patterns ….
© Curriculum Foundation
20
So
allof
the
pupils
in an
theexample
class
part
in thepromoted
villageworked
study
Geography
is only
herebe– taking
thethat
Level
And,
course,
these
are
thecould
questions
notDescriptions
only
–learning
butthis
they
could
besubjects
doing soassessments
at their
ownto
level.
Some
could
be
like
across
the
and
the years.
They
meantout.
thatThey
– but
also
enabled
be carried
writing
simple
descriptions
(Level
2)of- challenge.
others but
could
making
everyone
could
follow
the
same
curriculum,
at
their
own
also
indicate
what
is the
next
level
Sobe
they
had level.
comparisons
and contrasts
(Level 3). Some
could be being
significant implications
for curriculum
design
challenged
to recognise
patterns
thatquestions
all the hillof
villages
They also enabled
teachers
to ask(such
someasgood
their
were
tightly
packed, whilst
at most
the bottom
of hills were
pupils:
The
Level
Descriptions
werethose
for the
part “content
free” spread
and
out
– Level
4) or even
give
explanations
for these
patternsof(Level
could
be applied
to any
relevant
part of the
Programmes
Study5).
• Can
you Stage.
describe what we saw in the village (Level 2 question
for
any Key
Of course,
thisa did
not happen by chance, but only if teachers
asking for
description)
understood
and used
Level
Descriptions
• How
wasthe
thesequence,
village
where
live?
This
is what
made
themdifferent
unique
–from
andthe
in
manywe
ways
so (Level
veryto3plan
learning.
Butasking
when for
used
this way, they
were
very effective.
question
a comparison
and
contrast)
effective.
• Have you noticed something about all the villages we visited?
They
also
solve
the problem
of useful
“differentiation”
oraasout
it came
to be
(Level
4 question
asking
for
the recognition
of
pattern)
So the
Descriptions
had
a very
role in setting
progression
called,
learning”.
• terms
Why“personalised
isofthat,
think?
(Level 5 question
askingbeforapplied
an
in
a setdo
of you
skills
(or competences)
that could
to
anyexplanation)
part of the Programmes of Study.
© Curriculum Foundation
21
So, like the Romans, the Level
Descriptions
What have the
might
Levels
have
ever
done
done
something
for us?
for us after all!
© Curriculum Foundation
22
But how does the new
curriculum operate?
© Curriculum Foundation
23
The national
curriculum in
England
Key stages 1 and 2 framework document
September 2013
The national
curriculum in
England
The new curriculum is very different
because the Programmes of Study and
Level descriptions have been merged, so
the learning expectations are specified
in terms of the programme content.
Let’s look again at the example for Year
5 Science.
Key stages 3 and 4 framework document
December 2014
© Curriculum Foundation
24
Year 5 Science
© Curriculum Foundation
25
Year 6 isn’t about materials at all!
Science programmes
of study: key stages
1 and 2
National curriculum in England
September 2013
In terms of curriculum design, we assume that
And what about those pupils who fail to attain
all pupils in a Year 5 class would be studying the
the
learning outcomes
5?
The
Yearfor6Year
is: changes
samecontent
aspect offor
“materials
and
in
• Living
things and habitats
materials”
as specified.
In the
system,
they would
cover the same
• old
Animals
including
humans
content
at a lowerand
level.
But what will happen
• Evolution
inheritance
But what
about the pupils
who are making
now?• Light
greater than average progress? What do they
Electricity
go on• to?
Without Levels, there is not a higher
In other countries that have similar ‘end of year’
level at which materials can be studied in this
expectations, pupils who do not meet the
specification.
So,
there ishave
no guidance
at all
about a
expectations
to repeat the
year.
higher level in terms of materials.
So we would need to look at the specification
Surely, that is not the expectation here!
for Year 6. But what do we find?
No-one can exceed the expectations.
© Curriculum Foundation
26
Because
of this
issue,
the DFE have Descriptors”
come up with additional
Even then,
the
“performance
are only likely to
“Performance
Descriptors”
which
intended
to1the
sort
in any year
apply to
Many
people
English
pointed
and Maths
out
the
inareissue
Key
Stages
when
andpupils
new
2. curriculum
group into:
was•atMastery
draft stage
– but went unheeded. This bolt-on remedy
standard
What
is
not
the
ideal
allstandard
the
solution.
other subjects and the Secondary Key
• about
National
Stages?
• Working towards national standard
• Below
However,
thenational
issue standard
for schools is how to develop a system
that can
One
might
assess
find it
what
somewhat
our pupils
surprising
have attained
that, having
in terms
decided
of the
These are much more detailed and complicated than the old Level
to
national
introduce
curriculum,
a new curriculum
but also provide
withoutinformation
the old Levels,
that the
will DFE
Descriptions and, like the new Learning Expectation, are based on the
is
enable
now and
thinking
us to
about
introducing
learning
on.
what
is work.
tantamount to a
content
so move
can’t
betheir
applied
to the next
year’s
system of Levels!
These will be trialed in the Summer Term of 2015.
© Curriculum Foundation
27
This, of course, is what
this Assessment
Programme is all about.
© Curriculum Foundation
28
The examples we have looked at have been from Key Stage 2 – but the
issues they raise apply equally to KS1 and to the secondary phases.
KS1 has the additional consideration of building on the assessments
made during the EYFS. We shall look at these in later units.
Secondary schools may tend, understandably, to focus on GCSE grades
and projections and these often give useful help in clarifying
assessments. But whilst they are of key importance, they might not be
all that we value. We shall also be looking more at this in later units.
At all Key Stages, schools are required to develop a system that enables
them to check what pupils have learned and whether they are on track
to meet expectations.
© Curriculum Foundation
29
The DFE, in its “National curriculum and assessment from
September 2014: information for schools”* says:
“The curriculum must include an assessment system which
enables schools to check what pupils have learned and
whether they are on track to meet expectations at the end
of the key stage”
*Ref:
https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_d
ata/file/358070/NC_assessment_quals_factsheet_Sept_update.pdf
© Curriculum Foundation
30
But, what will this assessment
system
look
like?
And
how
will
it
This is also what this
enable
us to
to check
pupils
But,
what
arewhat
these
assessment
programme
is
have learned
and
whether
they
“expectations”?
are on trackall
to about!
meet expectations
at the end of the key stage?
© Curriculum Foundation
31
Do you remember that we suggested
that you think back to the lists of
competencies we looked at, and then
try to make your own list for your class
or school?
But first – your
The idea
was to take an element of
homework!
the Programme of Study or syllabus
you are going to teach this term, and
design a learning experience that
would put the two together.
© Curriculum Foundation
32
Did you do it?
How did it go?
Did you come up with any ways
of assessing the different
outcomes that you had planned?
Please post them on the
website.
© Curriculum Foundation
33
The national
curriculum in
England
Key stages 1 and 2 framework document
September 2013
The national
curriculum in
England
When the new curriculum was
introduced, the worry was that it was
going to be entirely “knowledge-based”
and would ignore the wider learning
that we explored in the Bridging Unit
(the things that we value!) and that you
looked at in your homework. The early
drafts certainly looked that way.
But, is this the case?
Key stages 3 and 4 framework document
December 2014
© Curriculum Foundation
34
To explore how we can do this, we need to
consider first the three “building blocks” of the
curriculum – and therefore the building blocks of
assessment.
We looked at these in Unit 2 of the Curriculum
Design programme.
These next few slides are from that Unit – so if
you have already followed the first programme,
they may seem familiar!
© Curriculum Foundation
35
The ‘Building Blocks’ of a curriculum:
What is a curriculum made of?
© Curriculum Foundation
36
The ‘building blocks’ of the curriculum:
Knowledge
Possession of information
Skills
Ability to perform mental or physical operation
Understanding
Development of a concept: putting knowledge in
a framework of meaning
© Curriculum Foundation
37
Look at the following two questions and one
instruction. Are they asking for knowledge, skills
or understanding?
What is the capital city of France?
Find out what is the capital city of Mongolia.
Why is New York not the capital of the USA?
© Curriculum Foundation
38
Here are the answers below.
When we look at curriculum documents it is often helpful to look at
Yes, it was too easy really. However, we do need to bear these
What
is that
the
capital we
city
of France?
the
verb
learning
distinctions
inintroduces
mind whenthe
design aexpectations.
curriculum.
To answer this question, you need knowledge. You need to be able to
recall
pieceofof
information.
Knowledge
expectations
often
start with
such
know that,
The atypes
experiences
that pupils
needwords
in order
toas:
acquire
identify,
state,
etc
knowledge
are name,
quite different
from the ones they need to acquire
Find
what
is the
capital– city
of to
Mongolia.
skills.out
You can
tell people
information
they have
practise skills.
Skills expectations tend to start with active verbs: investigate, carry
This
requires
you
to do something.
You need
be able to in
perform
an
out,
explore,
construct,
etc being able
Understanding
comes
from
to puttoknowledge
a
operation.
Inof
this
case to look
something
up in anto
atlas,
or google it, or
framework
meaning.
Knowledge
is essential
understanding,
ask
someone.
This
requires
a skill
kind.
Understanding
expectations
tendoftosome
start
withbe
ways
of
but
knowledge
without
understanding
would
merely
demonstrating
that understanding:
explain,
recognise
why,would
etc. be
disconnected information.
A collection
of such
knowledge
the curriculum
the pubnot
quiz.the capital of the USA?
Why
is NewofYork
This requires you to understand something in order to explain it. You
In case you
know
UlaanYou
Baatar
need to have acquired
thedidn’t
concept
of –a it’s
capital.
need to have to put
your knowledge into a framework of meaning .
© Curriculum Foundation
39
Look out for these verbs in the new national curriculum.
Knowledge
State, name, label, draw, identify, describe
Skills
Carry out, perform, find, investigate, explore
Understanding
Explain, justify, analyse, give reasons for
These are the verbs that help us make the
assessments.
© Curriculum Foundation
40
Now look again at the Science Programme of
Study of the new national curriculum.
Look at each bullet point (there are six). Is
each bullet asking for knowledge, skills or
understanding (or some combination)?
The key verb will help.
© Curriculum Foundation
41
Look at each bullet point in turn – is it asking
for knowledge, skills or understanding?
© Curriculum Foundation
42
What did you think? Do you agree with the
interpretations below?
Skill (compare and
contrast are actions)
Knowledge (“Know that ..)
Skill (using knowledge.)
Understanding (give reasons.)
Skill and Understanding (see over)
Understanding (explain)
© Curriculum Foundation
43
We now have the freedom to develop our “preferred”
So,
the new
curriculum is not
justthis
about
knowledge
– and
many of
system
of assessment,
and
needs
to take
account
ofits
specifications are skills and deeper understandings.
those things that we value, and enable us to use
assessment
formatively
of this inrelated
the next
Unit!)
The issue is that
these are all(more
very specifically
to a particular
piece of content. Yet when we looked at the competencies in the
Bridging
Unit,do
they
But
where
weinvolved
start? the development of approaches that can
be applied in a whole range of learning.
We said that an obvious starting point is the new National
The Level Descriptions allowed this more general application – and in
Curriculum.
doing so enabled them to be used formatively to move pupils to the
next stage of learning within the same content.
But this does not have to be the finishing point as well.
© Curriculum Foundation
44
Ofsted’s advice on this is clear:
“Schools are likely to use a combination of relevant
national curriculum expectations and performance
descriptors where they apply and expectations set by the
school”
© Curriculum Foundation
45
Ofsted’s advice on this is clear:
“Schools are likely to use a combination of relevant
national curriculum expectations and performance
descriptors where they apply and expectations set by the
school”
So this encourages us to set our own expectations – and it
is here that we have the opportunity to ensure that we
are assessing what we value.
© Curriculum Foundation
46
Of course, many of the aims we were looking at in the Bridging Unit were not
even elements of knowledge, skills and understanding. They were attitudes and
values. Some fell into the category of ‘21st Century competencies’
makes connections
thirst for knowledge
questioning
confident takes risks
independent
willing to have a go
listens and reflects
makes a difference
gets on well with others
persevering
generates ideas
literate
critical self-editing
communicates well
self-esteem
shaper
respectful
skilled
flexible
creative
shows initiative
compassionate
curious
‘can do’ attitude
© Curriculum Founda on
acts with integrity
loves learning
learns from mistakes
thinks for themselves
16
These things are what we value – so they must not be forgotten. But
do we need to assess them in the same way as knowledge, skills and
understanding? If so how? And how can we build them in as the
school element of the learning expectations?.
© Curriculum Foundation
47
Did the old Levels
address any of this?
© Curriculum Foundation
48
Level Descriptions for Mathematics
Level 4
Pupils develop their own strategies for solving
problems and use these strategies both in
working within mathematics and in applying
mathematics to practical contexts. When solving
problems, with or without ICT, they check their
results are reasonable by considering the context.
They look for patterns and relationships,
presenting information and results in a clear and
organised way, using ICT appropriately. They
search for a solution by trying out ideas of their
own.
Level 5
In order to explore mathematical situations,
carry out tasks or tackle problems, pupils identify
the mathematical aspects and obtain necessary
information. They calculate accurately, using ICT
where appropriate. They check their working and
results, considering whether these are sensible.
They show understanding of situations by
describing them mathematically using symbols,
words and diagrams. They draw simple
conclusions of their own and explain their
Do you see how these Level
Look
at thesewere
descriptions
Descriptions
general in nature
sentence
Are they
and couldby
besentence.
applied across
the
about
knowledge,
skills
or
range of
mathematics
‘content’?
attitudes?
They were intended to be a “best
Now
think back
fit” approach
andtosothe
the question
‘Competencies”
of the
Bridging
was always, “Is this
pupil
more like
Unit.
Level 4Do
orthese
5?” descriptions refer
to these competencies?
This did not lend itself to accurate
Are
there references
to critical –
measurements
and percentages
thinking,
communication,
which is probably
why theycohave
operation,
problem-solving or
been dropped.
investigation?
reasoning.
© Curriculum Foundation
49
We know that the Levels became
subverted over the years and
pressed into providing
information for which they were
never intended.
This, together with the
introduction of “sub level” took us
away from what we value, and a
formative use of assessment.
© Curriculum Foundation
50
We now have a chance to re-think
that approach.
We have the opportunity to adopt
our own “preferred” approach.
We are able to develop our own
learning expectations.
© Curriculum Foundation
51
The have
We
new national
the chance
curriculum
to take
account
poses
some
of the
problems
things that
(as we
wehave
really but
seen)
value.
also provides us with a
different basis on which to
We do not
develop
thehave
assessment
to be slaves to
the nationalthat
approaches
curriculum
suit our needs.
specifications. We can add our
own
In
theexpectations,
next Units we
and
shall
take
be
accountat
looking
ofthe
wider
specific
learning
waysand
in
deeperwe
which
understandings.
can do this.
© Curriculum Foundation
52
So that’s it – except for the homework!
Spend some time looking at the section
of the new national curriculum that is
relevant to you (your year group or
subject) and look at the requirements
one by one in terms of knowledge, skills
and understanding. Are you happy with
the balance?
Is there anything in them about the
competencies?
© Curriculum Foundation
53
By the way, we said earlier that the Level Descriptions were
unique, and you might be thinking the New Zealand Curriculum is
also set out in Levels. However, they do not have accompanying
Programmes of Study – so they operate quite differently.
© Curriculum Foundation
54
One last piece of trivia.
© Curriculum Foundation
55
The word ‘assessment’ comes from the Latin “assidere” - to sit beside (originally,
as an assistant-judge in the context of taxes). That implies that assessment is
something that we do with and for our students rather than to them.
See you next month in Unit 2.
© Curriculum Foundation
56

similar documents