Intro SPECTOR

Report
Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Introduction to the World of Work
Copyright Paul E. Spector, All rights reserved, March 15, 2005
What Is I/O Psychology?
• Psychology is the science of human behavior
• I/O psychology is the science of human behavior
at work
• Dual focus
• Efficiency/productivity of organizations (I)
• Health/well-being of employees (O)
• Development and application of the science of
psychology to the workplace
Activities and Settings of I/O
Psychologists
• Practice
– Consulting firms, government, private corporations
– Major focus is application of field to real world
workplaces
• Research
– Most are college professors
– Much of time spent teaching and doing research
• Considerable overlap between the two settings, and
most I/O psychologists do both to some extent.
Percentage of I/O Psychologists
Who Work in Various Settings
Source: Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology 2006 Member Survey: Overall Report.
I/O Psychology as a Science
• Research is one of the major activities for I/O
psychologists
• Develop new methods and procedures for
activities like selection and training
• Results shared through:
– Meetings: held by associations like SIOP
– Journals: such as the Journal of Applied Psychology
– Publication of research papers is difficult and
competitive
History of I/O
• Began early 1900s
• World War I first mass testing
• Between the wars, psychology helping business: I
side
• Hawthorne studied impact of social aspects: O side
• World War II: Psychology and the war effort
• Civil rights movement: Job relevance
• Technological change
Leading Historical Figures
• Hugo Münsterberg: Psychology and Industrial
Efficiency
• Walter Dill Scott: The Theory of Advertising
• Frederick Winslow Taylor: Scientific Management
• Robert Yerkes: Army Alpha and Beta tests
• Lillian Gilbreth: Time and motion; Human factors
• Bruce V. Moore: First I/O PhD?
• Roethlisberger & Dickson: Hawthorne Studies
Timeline of Major Events
I/O Psychology Around the World
• I/O interest has exploded over the past 10-15 years
and accelerating
• American consulting firms have become
international, reflected in names
– DDI--Developmental Decisions Inc. to International
– PDI--Personnel Decisions Inc. to International
• Research focus varies by country
• Number of graduate programs increasing rapidly
around the world
The Most Popular I/O Research Topics in Eight Countries
Country
Canada
England
Germany
India
Israel
Japan
Scandinavia
United
States
From Erez, M. (1994)
Topics
Career development, Employee selection,
job stress, leadership
Employee selection, job stress, leadership,
turnover, gender
Job Stress, motivation, training, work
environment
Job satisfaction, job stress, motivation,
organizational level
Career development, job satisfaction,
motivation, performance appraisal, values
Career development, job stress, leadership,
motivation
Gender, job stress, shift work,
unemployment
Career development, employee selection,
leadership, performance appraisal
Countries With the Most I/O Graduate Programs
Country
U.S.
Germany
Australia
Canada
England
Belgium
China
Netherlands
Number of
programs
Country
Number of
programs
124
11
France
New Zealand
4
4
Spain
Turkey
Korea
Nigeria
Puerto Rico
4
4
3
3
3
7
7
7
5
5
5
How to Become an I/O Psychologist
• Graduate degree necessary (MA or Ph.D.)
• Basic psychology, research methods (heavy
emphasis), and I/O content all part of graduate
training
• Entry requirements very competitive
• Involves training in research and practice
• Less than 1% unemployment
• Academic and nonacademic market strong
• No longer predominantly males
– SIOP was 36% female as of 2006
Median Salaries of I/O
Psychologists in the US in 2000
M.A.
Ph.D.
$72,000
$98,500
Applied starting
$73,750
Academic starting
$55,600
Men
$100,000
Women
$85,000
Note: Gender difference mostly accounted for by women being more likely to be M.A.
level and being younger. Source: Khanna & Medsker (2007).
6 Ethical Principles from American
Psychological Association Code
•
•
•
•
•
•
Competence
Integrity
Professional and Scientific Responsibility
Respect for People’s Rights and Dignity
Concern for Others’ Welfare
Social Responsibility

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