STUDY GUIDE REVIEW The cell unit QUESTION 1 Use the three points of the cell theory to explain how humans and bacteria are similar. ANSWER Yours should be in sentence format….mine is bullet format Both humans and bacteria are made up of cell(s) Cells make up tissue…organs and organ systems in humans. Bacteria is one cell no nucleus– DNA is inside of cytoplasm. All cycles undergo mitosis including both bacteria and human cells. QUESTION 2 Compare and Contrast plant and animal cells. ANSWER Both animal and plant cells have a nucleus. They are both multicellular. Plant cells have cell walls and chloroplast- animal cells do not. Plant cells make glucose and oxygen through the process of photosynthesis Their shapes are different: plant cell are more rectangular vs. irregular animal cell. QUESTION 3 Explain the process of osmosis. Use examples from our lab (egg osmosis lab) to support your answer. ANSWER: Osmosis is the diffusion of water. Diffusion is the process in which molecules from a high concentration move to an area of lower concentration. In our lab, vinegar went from the container (high concentration of water) to inside the egg. Solutions like limeade, mountain dew, and coke did the same. When students placed maple syrup in the cup the water from the egg went into the liquid surrounding the egg ie. wrinkled shell, hard yolk etc. H OW I S A C E L L M E M B R A N E L I K E A W I N D OW S C R E E N ? H OW I S T H E F U N C T I O N IMPORTANT TO THE CELL? IMPORTANT TO CELL? ANSWER The cell membrane is most similar to a window screen because window screen let air (gases) in but not insects etc. The cell membrane is selectively permeable made up of a lipid bilayer only letting in molecules that can fit through! The function is important to the cell because otherwise there would not be an equilibrium. THREE EVENTS OCCUR DURING CELL CYCLE ANSWER: Interphase: cell growth/development; DNA replication, prepares to be divided Mitosis: Cell division: a. Prophase b. Metaphase c. Anaphase and d. Telophase--------one copy of DNA is distributed into each of the two daughter cells. Cytokinesis: The cytoplasm divides and the organelles are distributed into each of the two new cells. EXPLAIN THE PROCESS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS ANSWER EXPLAIN HOW ACTIVE TRANSPORT IS DIFFERENT FROM OSMOSIS ANSWER Active transport is the movement of materials through a cell membrane using cellular energy. Active transport requires the cell to use its own energy, while in osmosis no energy is used. W O U L D A T I S S U E O R O RG A N H AV E MORE SPECIALIZED CELLS? ANSWER: An organ is made up of many different tissues. Each tissue has specialized cells so an organ would have more specialized cells than one type of tissue. For instance: Connective tissue vs. Small Intestine C O M PA R E A N D C O N T R A S T T H E W O R K O F R O B E R T H O O K E A N D A N T O N VA N LEEUWENHOEK ANSWER: Robert Hooke: observe cells first; inventor; built his own compound microscope; observe thin slice of cork; coined the name “cell” Anton van Leeuwenhoek: observe tiny objects with microscopes; Dutch businessman; built simple microscopes; tiny organisms moved looked at teeth, and gums. He called them animalcules meaning little animalcules meaning little animals. C O M PA R E A N D C O N T R A S T T H E F U N C T I O N S O F T H E C E L L WA L L A N D T H E C E L L MEMBRANE IN PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS ANSWER: Cell membrane: forms outside boundry of cell seperates cell from environment. In plant cells the cell membrane is next to the cell wall towards the inside of the cell. Cell membrane controls what substances come into and out of a cell. PART 2: Cell Wall: is a rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms. The cell wall protects and supports the cell. Cell wall made up of cellulose! In animal cells…no cell wall but many have cytoskeleton!