Biomimicry - Jonathan M. Weaver

Report
Biomimicry
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Innovation
in
Tools for Innovation:
Biomimicry
Jonathan Weaver & Darrell Kleinke
University of Detroit Mercy ME Department & IIA
[email protected] [email protected]
Biomimicry
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References
As noted within
Biomimicry
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What is the world’s tallest skyscraper?
… and what does a flower have to
do with it?
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burj_Dubai#cite_note-30 on 20091206
Biomimicry
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Quote
“Those who are inspired by a model other than Nature, a
mistress above all masters, are laboring in vain.”
Leonardo DaVinci
Biomimicry
Biomimicry
(or Bionics, Biomimetics, or Biognosis)
“Life has been performing design experiments on Earth’s
R&D lab for 3.8 billion years. What’s flourishing on the
planet today are the best ideas---those that perform well in
context, while economizing on energy and materials.
Whatever your company’s design challenge, the odds are high
that one or more of the world’s 30 million creatures has not
only faced the same challenge, but has evolved effective
strategies to solve it.”
Source: http://www.biomimicryguild.com/indexguild.html
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Biomimicry
Nature’s Laws, Strategies, and Principles
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Nature runs on sunlight
Nature uses only the energy it needs
Nature fits form to function
Nature recycles everything
Nature rewards cooperation
Nature banks on diversity
Nature demands local expertise
Nature curbs excesses from within
Nature taps the power of limits
Source: Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature, Janine Benyus
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Biomimicry
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Source: http://www.5min.com/Video/Learn-About-Velcro-161535230
Biomimicry
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Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Eastgate_Centre,_Harare,_Zimbabwe.jpg
Biomimicry
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Termite Thermal Regulation
• Incredible ability of termites to maintain virtually constant
temperature and humidity in their Sub-Saharan Africa
despite outside temperature variation from 3 °C
to 42 °C
• Project TERMES (Termite Emulation of Regulatory
Mound Environments by Simulation) scanned a termite
mound, created 3-D images of the mound structure and
provided the first ever glimpse of construction that may
likely change the way we build our own buildings
• The Eastgate Centre, a mid-rise office complex in Harare,
Zimbabwe, stays cool without air conditioning and uses
only 10% of the energy of a conventional building its size
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomimicry
Biomimicry
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Taiwan Tower
• Inspired by trees, leaves
and other Taiwanese
symbols
• It has many eco-friendly
features, such as
collecting rain water and
purifying it for its own
use, a small footprint, and
geothermal
heating/cooling
Source: http://inhabitat.com/2010/11/15/futuristic-solar-skyscraper-wins-the-taiwantower-competition/taiwan-tower-dorin-stefan-birou-arhitectura-12/?extend=1
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Lizard Inspired Sandbot
• Sand is slippery and can
act as a fluid or a solid
and accurate models of
the behavior of sand
have yet to be developed
• Georgia Tech is studying
how the zebra-tailed
lizard runs across the
desert to build robots
that can traverse any type
of terrain – including
sand
Source: http://spectrum.ieee.org/robotics/robotics-software/march-of-thesandbots (20091105)
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Echolocating Cane
• U Leeds (in the UK)
modeled the echolocation
technique used by bats
• They adapted their results
to develop a cane for the
visually impaired
• The UltraCane is
manufactured, marketed
and sold by Sound
Foresight Ltd.
Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomimicry
http://www.soundforesight.co.uk/new/ultracane5.htm
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Cold Water Detergents
• The Antarctic icefish
digests oils (in its prey) in
extreme cold
• That process offers
lessons and inspirations
for cold water detergents
Fast Company, November
2009
Soure: http://www.knowledgerush.com/kr/encyclopedia/Icefish/
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Biomimicry – Water Mixer Example
• Water agencies must
constantly mix water to
prevent stagnation
• The Calla Lilly’s
centripetal spirals provide
an ideal flow of liquid
• The mixer shown runs
with a fraction of the
power required for a
conventional mixer
Source: http://www.treehugger.com/galleries/2009/01/nature-inspired-innovation-9-examples-of-biomimicry-at-work-image-gallery.php?page=3
http://www.paxscientific.com/
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Butterfly Wing Inspires
Glare-Proof Displays
• Early cell phone displaces were
difficult to read in bright light
conditions
• Nanoscale structures on the Blue
Morpho butterfly wing cause
incoming light waves to interfere
with one another, reflecting only
specific wavelengths of brilliant
color
Sources: http://money.cnn.com/magazines/business2/business2_archive/2007/06/01/100050991/index.htm
http://jartiuch.wordpress.com/2007/11/15/qualcomm-imod-displays/
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Butterfly Wing Inspires
Glare-Proof Displays
The iMod display flashes brilliant
colors while drawing only a fraction
of the electricity required to power a
typical liquid crystal display
Sources: http://money.cnn.com/magazines/business2/business2_archive/2007/06/01/100050991/index.htm
http://jartiuch.wordpress.com/2007/11/15/qualcomm-imod-displays/
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Shark Inspires Hydropower System,
Sources: http://michigantoday.umich.edu/2011/01/story.php?id=7925&tr=y&auid=7618790
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Self Cleaning Paint
The ‘Lotus Effect’ of how
lotus leaves bead water to
remain clean has inspired
a new generation of selfcleaning paints
Source: http://www.publish.csiro.au/?act=view_file&file_id=EC129p27.pdf
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Shinkansen
• Front end modeled after
kingfisher’s beak to minimize
tunnel entry/exit shockwave
• Pantograph supports have
serrations modeled after owl
plumage to reduce wind noise
Source: Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature, J. Benyus, Perrenial NY, 2002
Biomimicry
Elephant Trunk Inspires Robotic Arm
• The 0.75 m long Bionic
Handling Assistant uses 13
actuators providing 11 degrees
of freedom
• The design of the flexible
gripper is modeled after fish
tails
Source: www.HydraulicsPneumatics.com /200 /Issue /Article/True/86387
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Biomimicry
Venus Flytrap Inspires New Way to Trap
Nuclear Waste
• The structure has
"windows" measuring 0.8
nanometers by 0.3
nanometres - just large
enough for caesium ions
to squeeze through
• Once inside, caesium
bonds with sulphide ions
triggering closing of the
window
Source: http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20527455.300-molecular-venus-flytrap-could-munch-nuclear-waste.html
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Biomimicry
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Eiffel Tower
• Lattice structure inspired by the orderly
latticework of tiny ridges in the thighbone
• Such bone-inspired latticework has become
an architectural norm today
Source: http://www.harunyahya.com/books/science/biomimetics/biomimetics08.php
Biomimicry
UK Armed Forces Clothing Inspired by
Pine Cones
• It is difficult to correctly dress for
the weather and layers can be
cumbersome
• UK researchers are investigating
clothing made of materials that react
to temperature and moisture, much
like pine cones
Source: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/10/1013_041013_smart_clothing.html
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Biomimicry
Electric Eels Inspire Possibly New Battery
Technology
An experiment at a Japanese
aquarium that used eels to light
Christmas lights inspired NIST
researchers to build artificial cells
that copy the eel’s electric
generation capability
Source: http://www.economist.com/science-technology/technology-quarterly/displaystory.cfm?story_id=15048719
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Nature’s Hammer Inspires Ice Ax
Source: http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/129/truly-intelligent-design.html
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Fishbone Audio Sensor
• Tokyo Electron has created the fishbone sensor, a new type of
audio sensor using the inner working of the human ear as a
model
• Each of the 24 cantilevers of the fishbone sensor works like a
human ear membrane and picks up individual frequencies
Source: http://www.diginfo.tv/2007/04/16/070413-bs-stc-electron-don.php
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Honeycomb Inspired Tire
UW-Madison and a
Wausau, Wis., company
have come up with a 37inch, bullet and bomb-proof
Humvee tire based on a
polymeric web so cool
looking there's no need for
hub caps
Source: http://news.cnet.com/8301-13639_3-10098240-42.html
Biomimicry
A Material Based on Sharkskin Stops
Bacterial Breakouts
• Similar to the texture of
sharkskin, Sharklet’s threemicrometer-wide diamondshaped pattern prevents
bacteria from taking root
• Scientists have printed that
pattern on an adhesive film
that will repel bacteria
pathogens from hospitals and
public restrooms
Source: www.popsci.com/science/article/2009-10/saving-skin#
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Biomimicry
Toyota Working on Night Vision System
Inspired by Dung Beetles
Toyota engineers have
developed camera software
which takes inspiration from
nocturnal dung beetles, bees
and moths that can see across a
remarkable range of color,
brightness and shadow
Source: http://www.popsci.com/technology/article/2010-01/fullcolor-night-vision-drivers-based-insect-eyes
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Robo Grasshopper
• Small robots have a tough time on
rocky terrain
• Swiss engineers noticed
grasshoppers and locusts can
quickly cover up to three feet of
uneven ground in a single hop
• They built a batch of microbots that
can propel themselves eight feet into
the air
Source: http://www.popsci.com/stuart-fox/article/2008-10/robo-hop
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Dew Bank
• The onymacris unguicularis is a
desert-dwelling insect that
creates dewdrops using its body
and then drinks them
• The "Dew Bank" was inspired by
this habit providing convenience
and an easy water supply for
desert residents.
Source: http://www.fastcodesign.com/idea-2010/dew-bank
Biomimicry
New Medicine Inspired by Frog Skin
• U Penn scientists have developed a potent compound that
mimics molecules in frog skin that stab bacteria to death
• Bacteria are adapting to conventional antibiotics by
modifying their receptors to prevent the antibiotic from
taking hold
• Countering this new drug would require the bacteria to
fully restructure its membrane
“A Big Leap for Antibiotics,” Popular Science
Magazine, January 2008.
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Biomimicry
Sponges Inspire New Battery Technology
• Mimicing sponges, Rice
researchers found a way of using
silicon to boost the capacity of
lithium-ion batteries by a factor
of 10
• The discovery could increase the
performance of the batteries in
everything from laptops to
electric vehicles
Source: http://www.wired.com/autopia/2010/10/rice-university-silicon-nanopores-lithium-batteries/#ixzz13SqLPU6N
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Biomimicry
Mercedes-Benz Bionic Concept Vehicle
Modeled after the boxfish, it has one of the lowest Cd’s ever
tested (0.19 for the concept car)
Source: http://www.designboom.com/contemporary/biomimicry.html
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Biomimicry
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Ford Example
In 2005, Ford's Volvo Division developed an anticollision system based on the way locusts swarm without
crashing into one another
Source: http://www.businessweek.com/innovate/content/feb2008/id20080211_074559.htm
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Regen Energy
Source: www.regenenergy.com
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Other Designs Inspired by Nature
• Airplanes modeled after birds (wing and body shapes,
falcon beak)
• Morphing airplane wings that change shape according to
the speed and length of a flight, inspired by birds that have
differently-shaped wings depending on how fast they fly
• Fish-inspired scales that easily slide over each other to
enable the morphing airplane wings
• Boat hulls designed after the shapes of fish
• Torpedoes that swim like tuna
• Solar panels that mimic natural photosynthesis
Source: http://blogs.asee.org/goengineering/biomimicry-natural-designs/
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Other Designs Inspired by Nature
• Submarine and boats hull material that imitates dolphin
and shark skin membranes
• Radar and sonar navigation technology and medical
imaging inspired by the echolocation abilities of bats
• Swimsuit, triathlon and bobsled clothing fabric made with
woven ribbing and texture to reduce drag while
maintaining movement, mimics shark’s skin
• Probes for sampling liquids of various viscosities modeled
after a butterfly’s proboscis
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How to Think Like a Biomimic
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Determine what you want to “do” (not “make”)
Identify key functions/purpose
Look to see how nature achieves those functions
Go observe nature’s genius and conduct research or talk to
experts to find patterns or principles which may work for
your problem
• Brainstorm , design and converse
• Refine the design
Source: Biomimicry Guild, La Cusinga, Costa Rica
Design Workshop, 2007
Biomimicry
The Biomimicry Guild’s Suggested Process
The Guild suggests a five step spiral development process:
This is further detailed on the next slide
Source: Biomimicry Newsletter, Volume 4, Issue 1, February, 2006
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Biomimicry
Biomimicry
Pinterest Site
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Biomimicry Taxonomy
A nice taxonomy is available at (may have moved!):
http://www.asknature.org/strategy/7e5683b29f576ebcb
7b39f567b7768c2#

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