Outdoor Recreation

Option 4:
Outdoor Recreation
What is the Value of outdoor
Summary of Content:
 Reasons for participation in outdoor
- stress management/relaxation
- enjoyment, challenge and excitement
- social interaction
- appreciation on the environment
- health and fitness
Reasons for Participation in
Outdoor Recreation
Complete the activity on page 96-97 of your exercise booklets.
Type of Outdoor Recreation
Reasons for Participating
Fun, fitness, enjoyment, competition
Rock Climbing
Adrenalin, strength, challenge, enjoyment
Trial Bike Riding
Enjoyment, fun, coordination, adrenalin,
Relaxation, team work
White Water Rafting
Exhilarating, competition, team work.
Fitness, relaxing, sight seeing.
Reasons for Participation in
Outdoor Recreation
Stress Management and Relaxation
Feelings of anxiety and stress are increasingly common in society today. Some of the reasons for these
feelings include:
Urbanisation: communities being over-crowded and polluted e.g. Large cities.
Unemployment: resulting in poverty and family pressures to survive contributing to higher stress
Increased Responsibility: longer hours at work, people commuting greater distances to work lead
to less time at home with the family.
Social Changes: the change in traditional family roles, family breakdown increase stress levels.
Disadvantaged Groups: experience discrimination, harassment, drug abuse, poverty and
Outdoor recreation can be an avenue to alleviate stress and anxiety caused by everyday life. It is seen
as an escape from a regular routine and gives a person the opportunity to ‘re-create’ themselves.
Outdoor recreation can promote feelings of relaxation or excitement that distracts people from
the stress in their lives.
Reasons for Participation in
Outdoor Recreation
Enjoyment, challenge and excitement
Activity (complete in your book)
Reflect on any experiences you may have had in outdoor recreation that filled you with a sense of
excitement and challenge. Why did it make you feel this way?
In groups, research and note the feats of one or more of the following outdoor adventurers.
Consider the role of challenge and excitement in their motivation to complete their expeditions.
Paul Caffyn – kayaked around the coast of Australia, mainly solo.
Kay Cottee – first woman to sail solo around the globe.
Sir Edmund Hillary – first successful mountaineering expedition to climb Mt Everest.
Brigitte Muir – first Australian woman to climb Mt Everest
Gerrard Gosens – blind adventurer and paralympian, climb Mt Everest and many other feats.
Reasons for Participation in
Outdoor Recreation
Social Interaction
Individuals choose activities according to their needs,
personality and lifestyle. Some people enjoy the
opportunities for social interaction that outdoor recreation
can bring.
It can join friends with similar interest together and allow
people to make new friends in the process of participating.
In contrast, other people prefer to escape crowds and seek out
isolated wilderness areas. For these people, solace and
isolation can be a valuable spiritual experience.
Reasons for Participation in
Outdoor Recreation
Appreciation of the Environment
The Australian environment offers some of the world’s most
spectacular and varied scenery, including alpine, tropical,
desert and coastal landscapes.
Individuals and communities do not have to venture far
from home to enjoy and appreciate some magnificent
natural environmental settings.
Participation in outdoor recreation can be an avenue that
allows individuals to immerse themselves in the natural
Reasons for Participation in
Outdoor Recreation
Activity: Complete in your exercise book
1. List recreational activities that can be
enjoyed in your local region.
2. Which activities appeal to you? Why?
3. What outcomes could result from
participation in these activities? E.g. An
increased respect for rainforests.....
4. In which activities could a person in a
wheelchair or an elderly person participate?
Reasons for Participation in
Outdoor Recreation
Health and Fitness
Many outdoor recreation pursuits involve physical activity and can contribute to the development and maintenance of
The components of fitness developed vary depending on the activity chosen.
E.g. Cross country skiing is
an excellent aerobic activity.
In contrast rock climbing and
canoeing develop muscular endurance.
Fitness requirements for many outdoor
recreational activities are quiet specific.
Whilst regular involvement in sport and
fitness activities is beneficial for general
conditioning, it may not be adequate to
prepare for specialised activities such as
a hard bushwalk carrying a heavy backpack
over several days.
Reasons for Participation in
Outdoor Recreation
Draw the table below in your exercise books, discuss and fill in the relevant information.
Outdoor Activity
Component of Fitness Required
Reasons for Participation in
Outdoor Recreation
Activity: Page 100 of your Work Booklets
Research the Duke of Edinburgh Award Program. Complete the table that
outlines the requirements of each award and answer the questions
that follow. http://www.dukeofed.com.au/
Reasons for Participation in
Outdoor Recreation
1. What is the aim of the program?
2. Identify some of the unique aspects of the award.
3. What is the criterion for gaining an award?
4. Outline what the award requires students to do.
5. What are the requirements for entry into the
6. List reasons why students may be interested in
7. What costs are involved?
8. How long to awards take to complete?
Reasons for Participation in
Outdoor Recreation
Research three types of outdoor recreational activities. Complete the table on page 102
of your Work Booklet using information from your research:
What the Activity
What are the technical skills and
understanding needed for safe
participation in outdoor recreation?
Summary of Content
Planning Skills
- environment planning
- emergency management planning
- food and water considerations
- resources for safe participation
- legal and administrative requirements
Campsite Selection
- geographic, environment & climatic considerations
- establishing the campsite
- tree fall evacuation
Conservation Skills
- ‘leave no trace’ camping
- minimal impact practices
- ethical issues
What are the technical skills and understanding
needed for safe participation in outdoor
Navigational Skills
- map reading
- grid bearing
- magnetic bearing
- true north
- measuring distance
- natural navigation
Emergency Management Skills
- wilderness first aid
- what to do when you are lost
- bushfire procedures, lightning, flooded rivers
Skills needed for outdoor activities
- canoeing/kayaking skills
- abseiling skills
Planning Skills
Environmental Planning
Planning for environmental hazards depends on
the activity being undertaken and the venue
It is important that the venue is suitable for the
ability level of the participants and that some
members of the group have prior experience
in the area.
Planning Skills
Case Study: Caving Tragedy
Expeditions in the outdoors are often delayed by poor weather. In some
situations, groups are advised to stay where they are, rather than
attempted to keep going in very poor conditions. Of course, it is
important to be dry, have shelter and sufficient provisions. The following
tragic story illustrates how poor weather conditions, combined with
poor decision making can be fatal.
A party of students and teachers became stranded in a cave after heavy rain
raised water levels in the cave. The group was delayed and began to
worry about their families and the authorities, who would be anxious
and waiting for their arrival. Two people decided to get out of the cave
to communicate the situation while the others remained in the high part
of the cave. Tragically, the two who left the main party drowned as they
tried to get out. The rest of the party survived and were rescued.
Planning Skills
1. What are the risks associated with caving
described in this case study?
2. What information could have been left with
family and authorities before the group set
3. How could the tragedy have been
Planning Skills
Emergency Management Planning
Many outdoor recreational activities involve elements of risk. While the risks
involved often make the activity more appealing and challenging, it is important
that participants ensure that risks taken are controlled or calculated and
individual needs and abilities within the group are considered.
With this in mind, the level of danger associated with an activity can be significantly
minimised through effective emergency management planning. This can take
many forms and may include such things as:
- departure and return times
- suitability of the activity for the skill level of participants
- route to be taken and escape routes
- legal consent forms
- first aid considerations
- procedures for emergency situations
Planning Skills
Food and Water Considerations
The length and type of the expedition, possible weather conditions
and the season will determine the consideration given to food
and water.
Most humans can live for up to three weeks without food, but will
survive only 1-3 days without water. E.g. If the temperature is 20
degrees Celsius, a person would need 1.2L of water if resting in
the shade, whereas if the temperature was 30 degrees Celsius the
need for water increases to 2.5L.
At least one day’s supply of emergency food should be carried for
most expeditions, more should be taken for extended trips.
Planning Skills
Legal and Administrative Requirements
Expeditions may involve travel on private land or in
national parks. Participants need to consider the
 Booking of camp sites
 Permission for access to private land
 Entry permits to national parks
 Attention to detail; leaving camp sites clean, leaving
gates as you find them, respecting privacy and
avoiding disturbing domestic plants and animals
Planning Skills
Resources for Safe Participation
The choices made about the clothing and equipment
taken on an expedition can save lives. Equipment
needs vary depending on the expedition undertaken.
In general, outdoor recreational activities demand
lightweight, durable equipment and clothing that
can protect you from environmental conditions.
Complete the activities on pages 105-109 of your work
Camp Site Selection
Geographical, Environmental & Climatic Considerations
The following should be considered :
 Water
- is the adequate water nearby?
- is the site at least four metres above the river bank in
case of heavy rain?
- ensure the ground is flat and free from sticks, stones, animal nests and burrows
and is not in a drainage area.
- what is the surface of the ground? Grass, sand, clay?
- are there fire bans in operation? If not, is there wood? Is an existing fire place
- fires are not permitted in many areas that are sensitive; e.g. Alpine regions or in
heavily used areas.
Camp Site Selection
Toilet Facilities
- are there toilet facilities? If not are there suitable private places for people to use?
- can you successfully set up a latrine?
- position the toilet area well away from the water supply and down wind to prevent
contamination and unpleasant odours.
Camp Site Waste Disposal
- Carry out everything that is carried in. This includes food scraps.
Privacy and Shelter
- Does the site provide shelter from the prevailing winds? Do you get sun or shade, sun should be
aimed for in the morning to get the group up and going whilst shade is more ideal in the afternoon
to provide some relief from the heat of the day.
- Swampy areas that attract mosquitoes, cliffs, dead trees, falling rocks and mine shafts.
Complete the activity on page 110 of your Work Booklet.
Camp Site Selection
Use the information below to complete the activity on page 110
of your work booklet
Ensure a level site:
Level, firm ground is important. Don’t select the lowest
ground because water will pool there when it rains.
Conduct a surface check:
To check for ants’ nests, dried mud (which may turn boggy
with rain, and rocks.
Look above:
Don’t camp under trees with large boughs, especially gums.
They tend to snap in strong winds and lightning strikes.
Camp Site Selection
Avoid insects:
Examine the ground for ants’ nests before pitching your tent. Keep your
tent zipped to stop insects entering. Don’t leave shoes, socks, hats and
gloves lying around outside as they can provide a warm spot for insects
& spiders to hide. Wear gloves when collecting firewood. Re-seal food
containers immediately after use. Dispose of your rubbish to prevent
ants and flies descending. Burn a citronella candle to discourage
Anticipate water flow :
Don’t camp in dry creeks or river beds. A storm may cause flooding. Dig
a small trench on the high side of your tent to divert water. Avoid any
area that will become flooded when it rains. Camp on the high side of
walking tracks as tracks tend to be good collectors of run-off water.
Camp Site Selection
Predict windy situations :
Face your tent opening away from the prevailing wind. Find a sheltered spot out of
the wind behind shrubs and trees or in a dune.
Respect your fellow campers:
Don’t set up too close to your neighbour. Avoid spreading out too much and
crowding other campers. Noise curfews are 9 pm for national parks and 10 pm for
caravan parks and camping grounds. Pick up your pet’s droppings. Tie up your pet at
night to prevent it roaming around other sites or harming livestock and wildlife.
Consider the wind direction when lighting a fire to avoid smoke blowing into your
neighbour’s area. Dispose of rubbish correctly or take it with you
Consider wildlife:
Pay attention to warning signs about wildlife such as crocodiles or poisonous marine
life. Biting insects breed around water — set up your camp at least 100 metres away.
Pack up food and scraps at night — they attract possums and insects.
Camp Site Selection
Establishing the Campsite
How to put up a tent:
Clearing the site
Laying a tarp
Laying the tent
Support poles for the tent
Threading the support poles
Raising the tent
Pegging the tent down
Putting the waterproof fly on your tent
How not to put up a tent:
Poor Tent Attempt
Camp Site Selection
Campfire Preparation
Preparing the Site
 Build your fire on a bed of sand or dirt away from logs or stumps and
vegetation. Clear away any material that could catch fire.
 Build your campfire at a safe distance from the tent and try to keep
people at least a metre away from the flames. Line this outside area
with a ring of stones and large rocks.
 Look for an area that is most shielded from strong gusts. There are 3
basic types of materials and wood needed to begin a fire: kindling, sticks
and large pieces of wood:
o Kindling is the base foundation of any fire. Materials for kindling
included twigs, tiny sticks, slivers of shaved wood, dried
leaves or paper, birch bark, dried grass, and dried pine needles.
o Sticks are used to hold your fire structure together. It’s important
that sticks are dry.
o Large pieces of wood are added to the fire last. Large chunks of
wood should always be placed inside the fire ring or pit.
Camp Site Selection
How to Manage Your Fire
 Put your fire out each night by covering it with sand or dirt or
dousing it with water.
 Don’t leave a campfire unattended at anytime
How to Put Your Fire Out
 To properly cool a fire, water should be splashed on all the
embers, including places that are not glowing red. The water
should be poured until the hissing noises stop.
 Then the ashes should be stirred with a stick to make sure that
the water has penetrated all the layers. A fire is fully extinguished
if the ashes are cool to the touch.
 If water is scarce, sand may be used. Sand deprives the fire of
oxygen. Once the fire has been covered thoroughly with sand, all
water that can be spared should be poured on it, and the sand
stirred into the ash.
Camp Site Selection
Other Considerations
Be careful what you burn. Plastics can give off noxious fumes and
aerosols and sealed containers can explode.
Pick a spot downwind so the breeze will blow the smoke away from
your tent.
Camp Site Selection
Disposal of Waste
 Wherever possible, whatever is carried in should be carried out. Toilet
waste should be buried to a depth that will not be eroded or provide
odours. Toilets should be in a designated area. In extreme cases, organic
material such as vegetable or fruit scraps can be buried.
 Garbage should be retained in some kind of sealed container such as a
tied off plastic bag until it can be deposited in a garbage bin.
Bush toilet
 Dig a narrow, deep hole away from water supplies. After going to the
toilet, cover waste with sand to avoid odours.
 After disposal the waste should be mixed with the soil to promote
appropriate bacterial action, the hole should be filled in and the original
surface reconstructed so that there is no evidence of the disposal.
Conservation Skills
Turn to page 115 of your work booklet and read
through the information on:
 ‘Leave no trace’ camping
 Minimal impact practices
 Ethical issues
Then complete the question on pages 115-116 of
your work booklets.
Navigation Skills
Complete the activity on page 117 using the information below:
Map reading
 Maps provide important information to allow you to navigate from one point to
another. The main type of map used in outdoor recreational pursuits are
topographic maps. They provide information on natural landscapes, man-made
landscapes, height above sea level, distances and grid bearings.
Grid bearing
 Grid bearings are used to locate features on maps. Most topographic maps are
divided into grids by horizontal and vertical lines drawn on the map.
Magnetic bearing
 A compass is a useful tool when navigating. The compass needle will always
point to magnetic north, which is in the direction of the north pole. Magnetic
north changes, although only minimally, every year. Magnetic bearings entail
the compass needle as a measure of magnetic north.
Navigation Skills
True north
 True north is the direction of the north pole.
Measuring distance
 When using a map, the scale on the map will assist in calculating the distance to
be covered. When the distance to be covered is not in a straight line, the route
will have to be broken into segments to calculate the distance. Most individuals
could cover approximately 4-5kms per hour on level, cleared ground. If the
vegetation cover is dense or the ground undulating, the distance covered may be
significantly less.
Natural navigation
 If a map and compass are not available, navigation is still possible by using
natural means – the sun and the stars.
Now read through the information on page 118 of your work booklet and familiarise
yourself with a compass. Your teacher will supply you with a compass to practice with.
Emergency Management Skills
Read through the information on pages 119-120. Then complete the questions on page 120-121
using the information provided below:
Management for hyperthermia:
DRABCD, put them in a cool place, cool body parts, especially the neck, armpit and groin,
apply cold packs, give fluids if conscious (water is the best fluid to drink).
Management for hypothermia:
 DRABCD, protect from the elements, remove wet clothing, dress in dry clothing, supply
body warmth and/or blankets, use a heat blanket if available.
Management for a funnel web spider bite:
 DRABCD, signs may be extreme pain, sweating, nausea, vomiting and difficulty in
breathing. Apply a firm bandage over the bite site, immobilise and transport to hospital as
soon as possible.
Management for a lost group:
 Use a whistle, torch, small contained fire, mirror, mobile phones, flares, radio, wave your
arms around, display bright clothing, make a signal from available resources; e.g. tree
Emergency Management Skills
Management in the event of a bushfire:
 Move to a cleared area, seek shelter in a building/ vehicle if possible, if
forced to remain outdoors, seek shelter behind natural barriers; e.g. rock
outcrops, wet clothing and cover yourself with a blanket or nonsynthetic sheet if available, seek natural watercourses, stay upwind of
the bushfire.
Management for spilt boiling water:
 DRABCD, run cold, fresh water over the area for 10 minutes, remove
jewellery and clothing from the burnt area, cover the leg with a sterile,
non-stick dressing, give fluids but not alcohol.
Management of a box jellyfish sting:
 DRABCD, symptoms may include intense pain, whip-like tentacle marks
on the skin, breathing and circulation may be affected. Flood the area
with vinegar for 30 seconds and apply a pressure immobilisation
bandage, immobilise the leg and ice to provide pain relief.
Emergency Management Skills
Management of a leech:
Place salt on the leech and pull off.
Management for a sprained ankle:
Follow the RICER procedure – rest, ice, compression and elevate the leg.
Management of a tick:
If not dealt with quickly, signs may develop including headache, blurred vision, weakness of limbs.
Put irritant fluid (kerosene, mineral turpentine, etc), on tick and pull off with tweezers.
Management of a snake bite:
DRABCD, exactly the same treatment as spider bite.
Management of a broken leg:
DRABCD, immobilise using bandages and splints, ensure circulation is not impaired, do not move
unless essential, reassure and observe for shock.
Emergency Management Skills
Use the following information to complete the three scenarios on
pages 122-123 of your work booklets.
When constructing a snow cave, the following points should be
• Avoid avalanche-prone zones
• Roof and walls of the snow cave should be at least 50cm thick
• A sloping tunnel entrance makes it easier to remove any snow fall
and helps trap warm air inside
• Try to choose a site where the wind blows across the tunnel
• Make a ventilation hole. Keep snow shovel and/or ski poles inside
the cave
• Maintain a permanent watch at all times
Emergency Management Skills
Your group of four is lost in the Blue Mountains in May. Sunset is
approaching. Describe how to construct an emergency lean-to
using natural materials:
• Try to find a horizontal branch approximately 1 metre above the
• Against the horizontal branch, at an angle of 45º, lean small logs,
foliage, branches, etc.
• The thicker the coverage, the more waterproof the lean-to will be
• Build the lean-to in a sheltered spot facing away from the wind
If the weather is fine and the sky clear, a lean-to should still be built
as the body will lose a large amount of heat through radiation.
Emergency Management Skills
How to source drinking water if you cannot locate any natural waterways in
the area:
Distillation method – impure water, sea water, polluted water etc, can be boiled
and the pure steam collected – possibly by hanging a towel. Or shirt over the
steam and wringing out the moisture.
The dew on foliage can be collected before sunrise by soaking it up with clothing
and sucking out the moisture.
Collect rainfall using cans, plastic, tent, bark etc.
Transpiration – place a rock in the bottom of the plastic bag and place the bag
around the leaves of a tree and secure. Water transpiring off the leaves will
collect over time.
Solar stills – dig a hole in the ground and fill it with urine, vegetation or anything
containing water. Place a can in the middle of the pit. Seal the pit with plastic by
securing the perimeter with rocks and soil. Place a rock on top of the plastic,
making it sag directly above the can. The condensation from the organic matter
collects on the underside of the plastic, runs down to the lowest point (caused by
the rock on the plastic) and drips off into the can.
What impact does group dynamics
have on the outdoor experience?
Summary of Content
Leadership Styles
- democratic
- laissez-faire
- autocratic
- strategic non-intervention
Understanding Group Dynamics
- stages of group dynamic (form, storm, norm, transform)
- conflict resolution
- team building
- cooperation
- communication skills, decision-making, flexibility
Understanding strength and weaknesses
- participant readiness, self-efficacy, balancing challenge and safety
- pushing the comfort zone
Leadership Styles
Click on the link to view the video clip on Coaching
Copy the following information into page 125 of your work booklets
This leadership style allows members of the group to contribute to the decisionmaking process. The strengths of this leadership style are that group members
have an input into how things are done, individuals feel significant and a wide
range of alternatives are identified. The weaknesses of this leadership style are
dissension may arise due to different opinions and may not be appropriate if an
emergency situation arises.
This leadership style has a laid back, casual approach. They are often disorganised.
The strengths of this leadership style are that other potential leaders within the
group may be identified. The weaknesses of this leadership style are potentially
dangerous situations may arise due to lack of leadership.
Leadership Styles
This leadership style allows for no input from the group. The leader
is in charge and they make decisions without consulting the
group. The strengths of this leadership style are that
responsibility for all decisions rests with the leader. The
weaknesses of this leadership style are that frustration may occur
among group members, morale of the group may suffer and
conflict may arise among group members.
Strategic non-intervention
This leadership style allows the group leader to step back and
observe the group. They intervene only when they have to. The
strengths of this leadership style are that it allows group
members to learn from their decisions and fosters group
Understanding Group Dynamics
Stages of group dynamics
Groups involved in outdoor recreational activities tend to progress
through four distinct stages:
1. Forming – group members meet each other and define goal
setting. Group members may be nervous and uncertain. The
leader plays an important role in providing direction and
2. Storming – conflict may occur during this stage because of
differences of opinion or personality clashes. The leader needs to
build confidence and teamwork.
3. Norming – the group tends to start working towards a common
goal rather than individual interests.
4. Transforming – individuals understand their role within the group
and value the contribution of other group members. Set goals
can be achieved as a group.
Understanding Group Dynamics
Conflict resolution
Because of the differences in group dynamics, conflict is likely to
arise in outdoor recreational activities. This is where the group
leader may plan a vital role. To manage conflict, the group leader
needs effective communication skills to negate the conflict. The
effective handling of conflict can be the difference between an
enjoyable and unpleasant outdoor experience.
Team building
Many outdoor recreational experiences can
improve confidence and self-esteem. When
individuals work together to achieve a
common goal, the quality of the relationships
within the group is enhanced.
Understanding Group Dynamics
Cooperation amongst individual group members is essential
for a successful outdoor recreational experience.
Through cooperation, each individual is seen as a valued
member where support and advice is offered and
Facilitation Skills
Read through the information on page 130 of your work booklets and then as a class
brainstorm the following:
Facilitation Skills
The effect a leader
with poor
facilitation skills
has on group
The effect a leader
with good
facilitation skills
has on group
Decision Making
Understanding Strengths and
Read through the information on pages 130 and 131 of your work booklets and then complete
Questions 1 & 2 on page 131 of your work booklets.
Please view the clips on ‘Pushing the Comfort Zone’
End of Outdoor Recreation Unit

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