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Electrical Engineering BA (B), Analog Electronics, ET065G 6 Credits ET064G 7.5 Credits Muhammad Amir Yousaf 1 Electronic Systems? What is Analog Electronics? Introduction Course Aims? Course contents? Muhammad Amir Yousaf 2 Revision of Prereqs. Nature is Analog • A variation in a natural process is always well defined and continuous in time. Muhammad Amir Yousaf 3 Nature is Analog • An electrical signal that is analogous to variation in natural phenomenon is ‘Analog Signal’ • The term "analog" describes the proportional relationship between an original natural variation and an electrical that represents the phenomenon. Muhammad Amir Yousaf 4 Electronics Electronics that reads Nature Primary information from natural phenomena comes in the form of optical, acoustic, thermal or chemical signals. These signals are converted into electrical signals. The devices used for such conversions are called transducers or sensors. Electronics involved in conversion and handling of these signals is Analog Electronics A Light Dependent Resistor Muhammad Amir Yousaf 5 Electronics circuit design : An art Electronics circuit design is an art of handling information carried in electrical signals. The electrical signals obtained from the transducers could be very delicate and weak in strength and prone to noise and interference. The obtained signals are than treated against the noise and amplified to strengthen them. After this the electrical signals could be used to make certain decisions or converted back into the physical signal or quantities for display or actuation. Muhammad Amir Yousaf 6 A Light Sensitive lighting system Muhammad Amir Yousaf 7 Analog Electronics Systems Input Transducer A Loud Speaker system. Muhammad Amir Yousaf 8 Processor/ Filter Interface Non-electrical information Interface Block diagram of an analog electronic system. Display / Digital End / Actuator Typical block chain in an Electronic System Sensor/Transducer: converts the real-world signal into an analog electrical signal. Filters: The analog signal is often weak and noisy, so filters are required to remove noise. Amplifiers: are needed to strengthen the signal. A/D converters: if digital processing is required. Muhammad Amir Yousaf 9 Typical block chain in an Electronic System An analog-to-digital converter transforms the analog signal into a stream of 0‘s and 1's. The digital data is processed by a CPU, such as a DSP, a microprocessor, or a microcontroller. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC) is necessary to convert the stream of 0's and 1's back into analog form. Muhammad Amir Yousaf 10 Op-Amps in electronic system An important building block used for amplification and filtering is : Operational Amplifier. Muhammad Amir Yousaf 11 Course Plan About the course: The course gives a deeper understanding and knowledge in analog circuit design and covers analog amplifiers, noise, filters, stability, oscillators, power supplies. The theory will be verified both with simulations and measurements of analog electronics circuits. Prerequisite: Electrical Engineering BA (A): Circuit Theory and Electronics, BA (A), 7.5 Credits. Muhammad Amir Yousaf 12 Course Plan Prerequisites : Electrical Engineering BA (A): Circuit Theory and Electronics, BA (A), 7.5 Credits. Dc circuit analysis Understanding of basic passive components jw method for solving ac circuit equations ( Introductory Circuit Analysis Chapter 14) Passive Filters Op-amps: introduction Muhammad Amir Yousaf 13 Course Plan Course aim and goal Students will gain a deeper understanding and knowledge of circuit design and characteristics. Students will acquire skills in the design of the amplifiers, filters, oscillators and power supply etc. Students will acquire proficiency in the use of computerized simulation tools. Muhammad Amir Yousaf 14 Course Plan Course Contents The course covers: System properties of analog circuits Short refresher of basic elements: Circuit theory, Bode plots, Simple RC filters Semiconductor Devices Different OP-Amp circuits Instrumentation amplifiers Characteristics of different types of operational amplifiers Frequency-dependent couplings Feed-back of amplifiers Stability Noise and noise models for operational amplifiers Various application examples Muhammad Amir Yousaf 15 Required Literature Thomas L. Floyd, "Electronic Devices - Conventional Current Version" Available from www.pearsoned.co.uk/student. Use ”voucher code” ZP038E för 20% extra discount. Delivery is with DHL and takes 5-6 days to Sweden. • • Last Year Offer Also available from the internet bookstores. ISBN 9781292025643 Don Manchini, "Op Amps for Everyone" -Free downloadable pdf Course web-page: apachepersonal.miun.se/~amiyou/ Muhammad Amir Yousaf 16 Teachers Muhammad Amir Yousaf S- Building 241-F 060148748 apachepersonal.miun.se/~amiyou/ Muhammad Amir Yousaf 17 Lecture Plan (i) Introduction to Course: Course Plan Aims and Goals Course Contents. Lecture 1: Revision of some basic concepts such as: RC filters Bode plots Transfer function etc. Lecture2: Discrete Semiconductor devices Diodes (Diodes, LEDs, Zener) Transistors (Bipolar and MOSFETs). Literature: Chapter 2 of text book ‘Electronic Devices’, Lecture notes 1 Muhammad Amir Yousaf 18 Lecture Plan (ii) Lecture 3 Operational Amplifies Ideal and Practical op-amps Input Signal Modes (Differential and Common Mode) Voltage Current Impedance Frequency Response Literature: Lecture Notes 2 Electronic Devices : Chapter 12 Op-amp for every one. Muhammad Amir Yousaf 19 Lecture Plan (iii) Lecture 4-5 Inverting & Non Inverting amplifiers Voltage follower Parameters and Operational amplifier properties Bias current and offset voltage Feedback, Open and closed loop response, Stability Literature: Lecture Notes 3 Electronic Devices : Chapter 12 Op-amp for every one. Muhammad Amir Yousaf 20 Lecture Plan (iv) Lecture 6-7 Comparator Summing and averaging amplifier Instrumentation amplifier Integrator and Differentiator Charge sensitive amplifier Current to voltage amplifier Instrumentation amplifier Oscillators, Active filters Peak Detector Literature: Lecture Notes 4 Electronic Devices : Chapter 13, 14, 16 Op-amp for every one. Chapter 16 Muhammad Amir Yousaf 21 Lecture Plan (v) Lecture 8 Noise Noise Factor Literature: Lecture Notes 5 Op-amp for every one: Chapter 10 Lecture 9 Power Supply Linear Supply, Switch mode supplies Muhammad Amir Yousaf 22 Exercise Plan Exercise 1: Revision of Circuit Theory concepts Bode Plots Exercise 2 Exercise 3 Muhammad Amir Yousaf 23 Lab Plan Lab 1: Basic Op amp circuits: The most basic OP-Amp circuits should be connected and characterized. Some fundamental non ideal properties of the OP-Amp will also be characterized. Lab 2: Active Filters: Active filters should be designed according to given specifications. You should consult with the book ‘op-amp for every one’ Lab3: Power Supply Design Fun Lab Muhammad Amir Yousaf 24 Examination and Grading System A written exam for 4.5 hp will be held 31st October The grades A, B, C, D, E, Fx and F are given on the course. On this scale the grades A through E represent pass levels, whereas Fx and F represent fail levels. Labs 1.5 hp will be graded as Pass and Fail Assignment 1.5hp with grades A to F (ET064G) Muhammad Amir Yousaf 25 Part II • Refresher Part I Muhammad Amir Yousaf 26 DC Circuit analysis Circuit analysis is the process of finding the voltages across, and the currents through, every component in the circuit. For dc circuits the components are resistive only and analysis is simpler. Ohm Law, Series, Parallel circuits, Kirchhoff’s voltage and current laws, Current, Voltage divider rules, Thevenin, Norton’s theorems. Muhammad Amir Yousaf DC and AC Circuit analysis For dc circuits the components are resistive as the capacitor and inductor show their complete characteristics only with varying voltage or current. One form of alternating waveform is sinusoidal waveform where the amplitude alternates periodically between two peaks. Number of cycles per unit time is frequency. Muhammad Amir Yousaf Sinusoidal Waveform Unit of measurement for horizontal axis can be time , degrees or radians. Muhammad Amir Yousaf Sinusoidal Waveform Unit of measurement for horizontal axis can be time , degrees or radians. Vertical projection of radius vector rotating in a uniform circular motion about a fixed point. Angular Velocity Time required to complete one revolution is T Muhammad Amir Yousaf Sinusoidal Waveform Mathematically it is represented as: Muhammad Amir Yousaf Frequency of Sinusoidal Every signal can be described both in the time domain and the frequency domain. Frequency representation of sinusoidal signal is: Muhammad Amir Yousaf A periodic signal in frequency domain Every signal can be described both in the time domain and the frequency domain. A periodic signal is always a sine or cosine or the (weighted) sum of sines and cosines. Frequency representation of periodic signal is: V fs Muhammad Amir Yousaf 2 fs 3 fs 4 fs 5 fs f A periodic signal in frequency domain A periodic signal (in the time domain) can in the frequency domain be represented by: A peak at the fundamental frequency for the signal, fs=1/T And multiples of the fundamental f1,f2,f3,…=1xfs ,2xfs ,2xfs V V T=1/fs t fs Kent Bertilsson Muhammad Amir Yousaf 2 fs 3 fs 4 fs 5 fs f Non periodic signal in frequency domain A non periodic (varying) signal time domain is spread in the frequency domain. A completely random signal (white noise) have a uniform frequency spectra V Noise f Kent Bertilsson Muhammad Amir Yousaf Why Frequency Representation? All frequencies are not treated in same way by nature and man-made systems. In a rainbow, different parts of light spectrum are bent differently as they pass through a drop of water or a prism. An electronic component or system also gives frequency dependent response. Muhammad Amir Yousaf Phase Relation The maxima and the minima at pi/2,3pi/2 and 0,2pi can be shifted to some other angle. The expression in this case would be: Muhammad Amir Yousaf Derivative of sinusoidal Muhammad Amir Yousaf Response of R to Sinusoidal Voltage or Current Resistor at a particular frequency Muhammad Amir Yousaf Response of L to Sinusoidal Voltage or Current Inductor at a particular frequency Muhammad Amir Yousaf Response of C to Sinusoidal Voltage or Current Capacitor at a particular frequency Muhammad Amir Yousaf Frequency Response of R,L,C How varying frequency affects the opposition offered by R,L and C Muhammad Amir Yousaf References • • • • • • • • • http://www.handbuiltpotteryonline.net/ https://picasaweb.google.com/107263748601915715835/NesargiKarmicPranjal#5556691209155746434 http://qtweb.ca/2012/08/20/setting-your-seo-goals/ http://www.istockphoto.com/stock-illustration-5738901-race-winner-finishing-line.php http://www.sodahead.com/fun/do-you-think-too-much-wisdom-is-a-powerful-thing-or-more-of-a-dangerousthing/question1239041/?page=1&postId=41088893#post_41088893&link=ibaf&q=deep+understanding&imgurl=http://mindbodysmil e.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/dontknow.jpg http://thsc.com.sg/digital-hearing-aids-techs-signals.php http://www.whatcircuits.com/software/electronic-simulator-and-analysis/5spice/ http://www.cstr.ed.ac.uk/research/projects/inversion/ http://www.karbosguide.com/hardware/module7c1.htm Muhammad Amir Yousaf 43