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Electrical Engineering BA (B), Analog
Electronics,
ET065G 6 Credits
ET064G 7.5 Credits
Muhammad Amir Yousaf
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Electronic
Systems?
What is Analog
Electronics?
Introduction
Course Aims?
Course contents?
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Revision of
Prereqs.
Nature is Analog
• A variation in a natural process is always
well defined and continuous in time.
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Nature is Analog
• An electrical signal that is
analogous to variation in natural
phenomenon is ‘Analog Signal’
• The term "analog" describes the
proportional relationship between an
original natural variation and an
electrical that represents the
phenomenon.
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Electronics
Electronics that reads Nature
 Primary information from natural phenomena comes in the
form of optical, acoustic, thermal or chemical signals.

These signals are converted into electrical signals.
The devices used for such conversions are called
transducers or sensors.
 Electronics involved in conversion and handling of these
signals is Analog Electronics
A Light Dependent Resistor
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Electronics circuit design : An art
 Electronics circuit design is an art of handling information
carried in electrical signals.
 The electrical signals obtained from the
transducers could be very delicate
and weak in strength and prone to noise and interference.
 The obtained signals are than treated against the noise and
amplified to strengthen them.
 After this the electrical signals could be used to make certain
decisions or converted back into the physical signal or quantities
for display or actuation.
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A Light Sensitive lighting system
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Analog Electronics Systems
Input
Transducer
A Loud Speaker system.
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Processor/
Filter
Interface
Non-electrical
information
Interface
 Block diagram of an analog electronic system.
Display /
Digital End /
Actuator
Typical block chain in an Electronic System
 Sensor/Transducer: converts the real-world signal
into an analog electrical signal.
 Filters: The analog signal is often weak and noisy,
so filters are required to remove noise.
 Amplifiers: are needed to strengthen the signal.
 A/D converters: if digital processing is required.
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Typical block chain in an Electronic System
 An analog-to-digital converter transforms the analog signal into a
stream of 0‘s and 1's.
 The digital data is processed by a CPU, such as a DSP, a
microprocessor, or a microcontroller.
 Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC) is necessary to convert the stream
of 0's and 1's back into analog form.
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Op-Amps in electronic system
 An important building block used for amplification and filtering is :
Operational Amplifier.
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Course Plan
 About the course:
 The course gives a deeper understanding and
knowledge in analog circuit design and covers analog
amplifiers, noise, filters, stability, oscillators, power
supplies. The theory will be verified both with
simulations and measurements of analog electronics
circuits.
 Prerequisite:
 Electrical Engineering BA (A): Circuit Theory and
Electronics, BA (A), 7.5 Credits.
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Course Plan
 Prerequisites :
 Electrical Engineering BA (A): Circuit Theory and
Electronics, BA (A), 7.5 Credits.
 Dc circuit analysis
 Understanding of basic passive components
 jw method for solving ac circuit equations (
Introductory Circuit Analysis Chapter 14)
 Passive Filters
 Op-amps: introduction
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Course Plan
 Course aim and goal
 Students will gain a deeper understanding and
knowledge of circuit design and characteristics.
 Students will acquire skills in the design of the
amplifiers, filters, oscillators and power supply etc.
 Students will acquire proficiency in the use of
computerized simulation tools.
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Course Plan
 Course Contents
 The course covers:
 System properties of analog circuits
 Short refresher of basic elements: Circuit theory, Bode plots, Simple
RC filters
 Semiconductor Devices
 Different OP-Amp circuits
 Instrumentation amplifiers
 Characteristics of different types of operational amplifiers
 Frequency-dependent couplings
 Feed-back of amplifiers
 Stability
 Noise and noise models for operational amplifiers
 Various application examples
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Required Literature
 Thomas L. Floyd, "Electronic Devices - Conventional
Current Version"
Available from www.pearsoned.co.uk/student.
Use ”voucher code” ZP038E för 20% extra discount.
Delivery is with DHL and takes 5-6 days to Sweden.
•
•
Last Year Offer
Also available from the internet bookstores.
ISBN 9781292025643
 Don Manchini, "Op Amps for Everyone" -Free
downloadable pdf
 Course web-page:
apachepersonal.miun.se/~amiyou/
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Teachers
 Muhammad Amir Yousaf
S- Building 241-F
060148748
apachepersonal.miun.se/~amiyou/
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Lecture Plan (i)
 Introduction to Course:
 Course Plan
 Aims and Goals
 Course Contents.
 Lecture 1: Revision of some basic concepts such as:
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RC filters
Bode plots
Transfer function etc.
 Lecture2: Discrete Semiconductor devices
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Diodes (Diodes, LEDs, Zener)
Transistors (Bipolar and MOSFETs).
 Literature:
 Chapter 2 of text book ‘Electronic Devices’, Lecture notes 1
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Lecture Plan (ii)
 Lecture 3
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Operational Amplifies
Ideal and Practical op-amps
Input Signal Modes (Differential and Common Mode)
Voltage Current Impedance
Frequency Response
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Literature:
Lecture Notes 2
Electronic Devices : Chapter 12
Op-amp for every one.
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Lecture Plan (iii)
 Lecture 4-5
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Inverting & Non Inverting amplifiers
Voltage follower
Parameters and Operational amplifier properties
Bias current and offset voltage
Feedback,
Open and closed loop response, Stability
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Literature:
Lecture Notes 3
Electronic Devices : Chapter 12
Op-amp for every one.
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Lecture Plan (iv)
 Lecture 6-7
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Comparator
Summing and averaging amplifier
Instrumentation amplifier
Integrator and Differentiator
Charge sensitive amplifier
Current to voltage amplifier
Instrumentation amplifier
Oscillators, Active filters
Peak Detector
 Literature: Lecture Notes 4
 Electronic Devices : Chapter 13, 14, 16
 Op-amp for every one. Chapter 16
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Lecture Plan (v)
 Lecture 8
 Noise
 Noise Factor
 Literature:
 Lecture Notes 5
 Op-amp for every one: Chapter 10
 Lecture 9
 Power Supply
 Linear Supply, Switch mode supplies
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Exercise Plan
 Exercise 1:
 Revision of Circuit Theory concepts
 Bode Plots
 Exercise 2
 Exercise 3
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Lab Plan
 Lab 1: Basic Op amp circuits:
 The most basic OP-Amp circuits should be connected and
characterized.
 Some fundamental non ideal properties of the OP-Amp will also be
characterized.
 Lab 2: Active Filters:
 Active filters should be designed according to given
specifications. You should consult with the book ‘op-amp for every
one’
 Lab3: Power Supply Design
 Fun Lab
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Examination and Grading System
 A written exam for 4.5 hp will be held 31st
October
 The grades A, B, C, D, E, Fx and F are given
on the course. On this scale the grades A
through E represent pass levels, whereas Fx
and F represent fail levels.
 Labs 1.5 hp will be graded as Pass and Fail
 Assignment 1.5hp with grades A to F
(ET064G)
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Part II
• Refresher Part I
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DC Circuit analysis
 Circuit analysis is the process of finding the voltages across, and the
currents through, every component in the circuit.
 For dc circuits the components are resistive only and analysis is
simpler.
 Ohm Law,
 Series, Parallel circuits,
 Kirchhoff’s voltage and current laws,
 Current, Voltage divider rules,
 Thevenin, Norton’s theorems.
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DC and AC Circuit analysis
 For dc circuits the components are resistive as the capacitor and
inductor show their complete characteristics only with varying voltage
or current.
 One form of alternating waveform is sinusoidal waveform where the
amplitude alternates periodically between two peaks.
 Number of cycles per unit time is frequency.
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Sinusoidal Waveform
 Unit of measurement for horizontal axis can be time ,
degrees or radians.
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Sinusoidal Waveform
 Unit of measurement for horizontal axis can be time ,
degrees or radians.
Vertical projection of radius
vector rotating in a uniform
circular motion about a fixed
point.
 Angular Velocity
 Time required to complete one
revolution is T
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Sinusoidal Waveform
 Mathematically it is represented as:
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Frequency of Sinusoidal
 Every signal can be described both in the time domain and the
frequency domain.
 Frequency representation of sinusoidal signal is:
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A periodic signal in frequency domain
 Every signal can be described both in the time domain and the
frequency domain.
 A periodic signal is always a sine or cosine or the (weighted) sum
of sines and cosines.
 Frequency representation of periodic signal is:
V
fs
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2 fs
3 fs
4 fs
5 fs
f
A periodic signal in frequency domain
 A periodic signal (in the time domain) can in the frequency
domain be represented by:
 A peak at the fundamental frequency for the signal, fs=1/T
 And multiples of the fundamental f1,f2,f3,…=1xfs ,2xfs ,2xfs
V
V
T=1/fs
t
fs
Kent Bertilsson
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2 fs
3 fs
4 fs
5 fs
f
Non periodic signal in frequency domain
 A non periodic (varying) signal time domain is spread in the
frequency domain.
 A completely random signal (white noise) have a uniform
frequency spectra
V
Noise
f
Kent Bertilsson
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Why Frequency Representation?
 All frequencies are not treated in same way by nature and
man-made systems.
 In a rainbow, different parts of light spectrum are bent differently
as they pass through a drop of water or a prism.
 An electronic component or system also gives frequency
dependent response.
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Phase Relation
 The maxima and the minima at pi/2,3pi/2 and 0,2pi
can be shifted to some other angle.
The expression in this case would be:
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Derivative of sinusoidal
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Response of R to Sinusoidal Voltage or
Current
 Resistor at a particular
frequency
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Response of L to Sinusoidal Voltage or
Current
 Inductor at a particular frequency
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Response of C to Sinusoidal Voltage or
Current
 Capacitor at a particular frequency
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Frequency Response of R,L,C
 How varying frequency affects the opposition offered
by R,L and C
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References
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http://www.handbuiltpotteryonline.net/
https://picasaweb.google.com/107263748601915715835/NesargiKarmicPranjal#5556691209155746434
http://qtweb.ca/2012/08/20/setting-your-seo-goals/
http://www.istockphoto.com/stock-illustration-5738901-race-winner-finishing-line.php
http://www.sodahead.com/fun/do-you-think-too-much-wisdom-is-a-powerful-thing-or-more-of-a-dangerousthing/question1239041/?page=1&postId=41088893#post_41088893&link=ibaf&q=deep+understanding&imgurl=http://mindbodysmil
e.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/dontknow.jpg
http://thsc.com.sg/digital-hearing-aids-techs-signals.php
http://www.whatcircuits.com/software/electronic-simulator-and-analysis/5spice/
http://www.cstr.ed.ac.uk/research/projects/inversion/
http://www.karbosguide.com/hardware/module7c1.htm
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