Multipurpose Aerial Drone for Bridge Inspection and Fire Extinguishing Raquel Remington Ramon Cordero Daniel Villanueva Larry March Adviser: Dr. Ibrahim Tansel Problem Statement and Motivation Building the next Bridge Inspection and Fire Extinguishing drone • Design a release mechanism that is more efficient for the chemical fire extinguisher. • To make the inspection of bridges safer for engineers and inspectors. • To allow fighter to be more efficient in extinguishing of small fires. Impacts on Safety Inspection - Crane Inspection - Smoke Stack Inspection - Power Line Aerial Inspection - Pipe Lines - Wind Farm / Wind Mill Aerial Inspection - Roof top damage Inspection - Solar Panel Inspection - Refinery Flare Tip Inspection - Bridge Aerial Inspection - Search and rescue - Insurance companies to inspect damage - Any application requiring aerial video or still photography via remote drone injuries Fire Extinguishing -Small fires -Chemical extinguishing testing Impacts on Economy Air drone are the next technology • Easy access • Fast delivery • Quick access • Hard to get places • No waiting • Unmanned • Availability to be tract and real time video • No life risk • Hard to get places Photograph by amazon Photograph by DHL Markets • The quad copter industry is changing rapidly. The market is expanding as technology improves and costs decrease, and it can be difficult to keep track of what companies are even making the various models out there. Proposed Structural Design Mechatronic System •Auto pilot: Pixhawk •32 bit ARM Cortex® M4 Processor running NuttX RTOS •14 PWM/servo outputs •External safety button for easy motor activation •Multicolor LED indicator https://store.3drobotics.com/products/3d r-pixhawk •High-power, multi-tone piezo audio indicator 3DR uBlox GPS with Compass Kit •5 Hz update rate •25 x 25 x 4 mm ceramic patch antenna •Rechargeable 3V lithium backup battery •Low noise 3.3V regulator •I2C EEPROM for configuration storage •Power and fix indicator LEDs •Protective case •38 x 38 x 8.5 mm total size • 16.8 grams http://store.3drobotics.com/products/3drgps-ublox-with-compass Telemetry kit (radio ste) •Frequency : 915 or 433 MHz •Interchangeable air and ground modules •Micro-USB port •Allows for Remote collection of the Autopilot’s Data https://store.3drobotics.com/products/3drradio Video/OSD system •Sony HAD 520 line camera •MinimOSD on-screendisplay-board •5.8Ghz 200mw video transmitter/receiver pair http://store.3drobotics.com/products/3dr-fpvosd-kit •Two 900mAh LiPo batteries (one for the air, one for the ground) Electronic Speed Controller •Constant Current: 45A •Input Voltage: 2-6 cells Lipo(7.2V-24V) • Output: 5.5V/6A •Max RPM: 240,000rpm for 2 Poles Brushless Motor • Motor Plugs: Female 4.0mm Bullet Connector http://www.hobbyking.com/hobbyking/store/__25366__ Turnigy_Multistar_45_Amp_Multi_rotor_Brushless_ESC _2_6S.html •Weight: 58g Power supply •Capacity: 8000mAh •Voltage: 6s/ 22.2V •Weight: 1105g •Dimensions:195x50x55 mm http://www.hobbyking.com/hobbyking/store/__18210__Turnigy_nan o_tech_8000mAh_6S_25_50C_Lipo_Pack.html Power distribution board •4 female Deans connectors/ 1 XT60 connector •Sends power and signals to the different electric speed controllers to power the different motors •Regulates a failsafe power source to the autopilot https://store.3drobotics.com/products/quadcopte r-power-distribution-board-1 Power module •Supports up to 10s LiPo battery •Maximum voltage supported 45V •Maximum Amperage supported 90 amps http://www.rangevideo.com/3dr-pixhawk/876-powermodule-apmpx4-support-to-10s-battery.html Brushless Motors •Kv 480(rpm/v) •Weight 154g •Max Current 31 A •Resistance 62(mh) •Max Voltage 22(V) •Power 680(W) •Diameter C (mm)48 •Can Length D (mm)33 http://www.rcdetails.info/details/6853 Rpm=480(rpm/V)*25.2V =12096 •Shaft Ø (mm)6 •Length B (mm)33 •LiPo max6 Radio controller •Spektrum DX8 Radio Controller •8 channel radio •Spektrum ARB8000 •High resolution radio receiver •3DR PPM encoder https://www.spektrumrc. com/Products/Default.as px?ProdId=SPMAR8000 http://www.spektrumrc.com/Pr oducts/Default.aspx?ProdId=SP M8800 https://store.3drobotics.com/ products/8-channel-ppmencoder-version-2 •Receives PWM servo outputs of the R/C receiver and encodes them into a PPM pulse suitable for the autopilot Autopilot/radio set up Power Set up Proposed Designs of Release Mechanism Designed: Solidworks 2013 Manufactured: 3D Printing Material: Polyactic Acid (PLA) Final Design Mechatronics: Release Mechanism Programming: Arduino Software & Mission Planner Release Mechanism Test Initial Design Test Final Design Test Force Analysis - Rotors • Required lift of rotors ▫ ▫ Weighs 49 N Solving dictates that thrust per rotor must be greater than 12.23N ▫ Solving for the radius yields: Radius of rotors must be greater than 0.055m Force Analysis – Release Mechanism • Forces acting upon the grippers ▫ Rearranging yields: Mass of extinguishing grenade is 1.4 kg. Force is 3.43N per gripper Thermal Analysis • Updraft temperatures1 – 60-100°C • Carbon fiber maintains integrity up to 2200°C ▫ Epoxy resin can soften at temperatures above 100°C • PLA can withstand temperatures up to 150°C • Fire extinguishing grenade - 82°C • Recommended operating temperatures of 6070°C Von Mises Stress Simulation Stress Quality Stress (kPa) Maximum 117 Minimum 112 Average 114 Strain Simulation Strain Quality Strain (µε) Maximum 29 Minimum 28 Average 28.5 Factor of Safety Simulation Deformation Simulation Deformation Quality Deformatio n (µm) Maximum 0.258 Minimum 0.245 Average 0.250 Fabrication • Structural Skeleton ▫ Carbon Fiber tubing and plating Manufactured to specifications • Electronic Components ▫ Prefabricated • Release Mechanism ▫ 3D printing in PLA Testing Total Costs - $1284.26 Item Individual Cost ($) Quantity Total Cost 3DR Video Kit 189.99 1 189.99 XT60 Male Connector 1.25 1 1.25 480 KV Motor 18.00 4 72.00 3DR Pixhawk 199.99 1 199.99 3DR GPS 79.99 1 79.99 Deans Male Connector 1.00 4 4.00 ESC 20 AMP with SimonK 25.99 4 103.96 IRIS + Battery Pack 39.99 1 39.99 Power Board 15.00 1 15.00 3DR Radio Set 100.00 1 100.00 PPM Encoder 24.90 1 24.90 APC Propellers 8.00 1 8.00 Carbon Fiber Tubing 41.25 3 123.75 Propellers 2.80 2 5.60 Carbon Fiber Disk (large) 41.95 2 83.90 Carbon Fiber Disk (small) 31.95 1 31.95 Motor for Claw 24.99 1 24.99 3D Printing 175.00 1 175.00 Sustainability • Carbon Fiber Structure ▫ Repurposed or downcycled • Lithium Ion Battery ▫ Recyclable though doing so drives the cost of lithium up 5 times • PLA Plastic Components ▫ Recycled chemically and remanufactured to PLA filament Standards • • • • • ASME Code of Ethics SI System of Units FAA UAS Standards ASTM Composite Standards IEEE SA Consumer Electronics Standards Questions? References • 1Clark, Terry, Janice Coen, Mary Ann Jenkins, David Packham. "Modeling the Links Between Fire and Wind." UCAR.