TOURISM PETER ROBINSON MICHAEL LÜCK STEPHEN L. J. SMITH 15 Tourism Policy and Planning Learning Objectives • To understand the concepts of tourism policy and planning • To evaluate the role of policy and planning in tourism development • To critically assess the challenges faced by tourism planners around development, access, recreation and conservation Tourism Policy • Tourism policy is often closely linked to – Employment opportunities – Diversification for traditional rural businesses – Development of infrastructure – Development of tourism strategy – Enhanced quality of life – Cultural preservation – Inward investment strategies Tourism Planning Organizations • International – United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) • National – National Tourism Organizations (NTOs) – Destination Management (or Marketing) Organizations (DMOs) Tourism Planning Organizations • Local – Councils • Local authority involvement in planning includes – Coordination of different functions, such as rights of way and access, conservation, licensing etc. – Planning processes and regulation required for developing new facilities – Legislation and regulation, including licensing, health and safety, food safety and environmental health Tourism Planning Organizations • Local authority involvement in planning includes (cont.) – Entrepreneurship, supporting new businesses, offering favourable business rates and offering startup funding – Stimulation of supply and demand through investment in the activities of a DMP – Marketing and promotion through a DMP or directly, including promotion of the area as an investment destination Tourism Planning Organizations • Local authority involvement in planning includes (cont.) – Providing benefit to local communities and enhancing civic pride – Protecting public interest, ensuring communities do not suffer the impacts of tourism development, but can benefit from them Why Plan for Tourism? • • • • • • • • • • Population changes Changing visitor trends The nature of the destination Over-exploitation Outbreaks of diseases Congestion Event safety Resentment towards tourists Increase in criminal activity Destruction of host community values Challenges in Tourism Planning • Managing seasonality • Converting day trippers • Managing impacts – – – – Environmental Social Cultural Economic Management Solutions • Tools and techniques – – – – – Managing visitor flows Carrying capacity Zoning Education and interpretation Encouraging local involvement Planning Process (Cooper et al., 2008) • • • • • • • • • Recognition of planning need Setting objectives for planning need Surveying the existing data Creating surveys to collect new data Analysing primary and secondary data Formulating an initial/draft plan Developing recommendations Implementing the plan Monitoring and amending the plan References • Cooper, C., Fletcher, J., Fyall, A., Gilbert, D. and Wanhill, S. (2008) Interrelationships and Classifications. In: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 4th edn. Prentice Hall, Pearson Education Limited, Harlow, UK.