Presentation - College of Education

Report
Summary: What did I learn?
A research proposal is simply a “written plan for conducting a research
study” (Fraenkel, 617).These words echoed in my mind as I designed my
study.
The information I will present tonight reflects a synthesis of
all the knowledge I have gained through my graduate courses
as well as my passion for an authentic Visual Arts assessment
model. I compare my finished proposal to a finished
artwork…there is always room for improvement so I’m
never truly finished. 
•Visual Arts education needs to continue to build on contentrich assessments that document student achievements in the
arts.
•More time and funding needs to be allocated to rubric
design and benchmark decoding.
A Snapshot District Visual Arts
Assessment Scheme:
Orange County Public Schools
Maribel Lopez
UCF
ARE 6747
June 12, 2012
PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL
Develop and present a standards-based assessment layout for
Orange County Public (OCPS) Schools’ Visual Arts Program
Focus
Layout: scheme; a plan of action
 Framework and function for the district-wide Visual
Art assessment plan will include:

◦ Research Design: alignment with benchmarks and pushing
rigor (DOK model)
◦ Population and Sampling
◦ Instrumentation
◦ Procedure
◦ Test Samples with rubric
◦ Adjudication
Research Definitions








Authentic art
Authentic assessment
Achievement
Aptitude
Constructs
Aesthetics inquiry
Standards
Benchmarks
Problem

Current OCPS Visual Arts
Program does not have a
effective model for assessing
learning in the Visual Arts

OCPS Visual Arts Performance
Assessment for the 2011-2012
school year
◦ Test on drawing skills
◦ Evaluated on the ability to reproduce
a still life prompt (?) based on
materials teachers will have available
◦ Evaluate student growth, not measure
student growth or achievement
BACKGROUND SUMMARY
OF ORANGE COUNTY
PUBLIC SCHOOLS’ FINE
ARTS OBJECTIVE
OCPS Visual Arts Vision and Mission
OCPS Arts students are provided quality,
sequential, standards
based instruction in Dance,
Instrumental Music,Vocal Music, Theatre,
and Visual Arts to prepare them for 21st
Century Skills required for jobs of the
future. (OCPS, 2012)
 Instruction is (will be) guided by the
Next Generation Sunshine State
Standards and Benchmarks (NGSSS)

OCPS Visual Art Standards:
Curriculum Instructional Assessment (CIA) Blueprints

CIA Blueprints were created to provide instructors
with comprehensive information for each of the Next
Generation Sunshine State Standard.
◦ instructional strategies
◦ teaching resources
◦ formative assessments
◦ examples of essential questions
◦ cross-curricular connections
◦ learning experiences for the 21st Century Classroom

The CIA Blueprint documents indicate what each
student should know in a course of study in the fine
arts.
Questions
Can successful Visual Arts
assessments contribute to
student achievement and
learning in the arts?
What does an assessment
model that measures learning
in the Visual Arts look like for
Orange County Public
Schools?
Variables
Independent variable:
Assessment tool
Dependant Variable:
Student achievement
and learning in the
arts
Hypothesis
Through alignment with Visual Arts Standard, benchmarks
and rubrics, assessment in OCPS Visual Arts can measure
student achievement and learning in the arts.
Research Design

This qualitative study aims to create and present
a K-12 OCPS Visual Arts Assessment System that
measures learning in the art and follows Florida
Next Generation Sunshine State Standards for
Visual Arts.

Results of this study will
◦ Promote, assist and improve on student learning
◦ Inform programs of teaching and learning
◦ Provide evidence of individual student growth in the Visual
Arts
◦ Assist in the improvement of student learning and teaching


Study will make use of authentic art
Assessment design will echo
◦ Florida’s Performing Fine Arts Assessment Project for
Drama, Theater and Music (2012)
◦ Australia’s Sample Assessment Instrument for Visual Arts,
Queensland Study (2007)
◦ Read Diket’s “aboutness” for Visual Arts Assessment
◦ Florida Vocal Association
◦ Depth-of-Knowledge in the Fine Arts/Visual Arts for
Missouri’s Music Educators Association

Treatment will follow A-B Design
◦ Pre-assessment and Post-assessment
◦ Compare their own results of their first assignments to
the later one
◦ Visible Learning growth
Target Population

A ideal population would
be all students K-12 in
OCPS that have access to
Visual Arts program
Accessible Population
All 6th grade students in OCPS
that have access to Visual Arts
Program

There is a higher percentage
of probability that most 6th
graders have had prior art
education at the elementary
level.
◦ Foundation of art knowledge
that align with district
standards and benchmarks
◦ 6th graders have an inherent
motivation and thirst for
knowledge that affects
education in visual arts.
Population
Sampling
•
•
The study will be conducted in all Visual Arts
classrooms with 6th grade students in Orange
County Public School District.
Convenience Sampling:
All 6th grade students in Avalon Middle School, OCPS
• Two classes of 35 students in the school
• n = 35 x 2 = 70
• These students are conveniently available for the study.
•
•
Limitations and disadvantage of this sampling
method:
Study could be biased
• Study would have to be repeated with similar samples to
decrease the probability or a one-time occurrence
(Fraenkel, 2012, p. 100).
•
Instrumentation of Assessment
The instrument will be a Visual Art Assessment that measures
what students should know in the area of Visual Arts in Orange
County Public Schools as outlined by the NGSSS and
benchmarks (OCPS, 2012). Major Components
Phase 1: Aesthetic Inquiry
Art Talk
Art History
Phase 2: Art Creation
Studio component
Technical aspects of art making
Phase 3: Reflective Writing
Personal reflection / Artist Statement
Explains and defends artistic decisions
Art vocabulary
Art Vocabulary
PROCEDURES
•NGSSS
Benchmark Data Analysis
•Benchmark selection process for district assessment
•Depth-of-Knowledge Model
•Samples with rubric
•Adjudication
Grade
K
1
2
3
4
5
6/8
9/12
# of
Benchmarks
22
31
32
34
37
44
58
105
Data Analysis #1


Total of 363 NGSSS Visual Art
Benchmarks in K-12
Benchmarks are divided by Big
Ideas
◦ C = Critical Thinking and Reflection
◦ S = Skills, Techniques and Processes
◦ O = Organizational Structure
◦ H = Historical and Global Connections
◦ F = Innovation, Technology and the
Future
Visual Arts NGSSS Benchmarks
Data
Analysis #2
Grade
# of
Benchmarks
K
22
1
31
2
32
3
34
4
37
5
44
6/8
58
9/12
105
Visual Arts
NGSSS
Benchmarks

Grades 6/8 share benchmarks

6/8 grade bracket = 58 benchmarks

Benchmarks were grouped into 3
categories
◦ Aesthetic Inquiry
◦ Art Creation
◦ Reflective Writing

Benchmarks were chosen for
district assessment
Phase Phase Phase
1
2
3
C.1.3
S.3.1
O.2.1
C.2.1,3
F.1.1-2
C.1.2
C.3.2,4
F.1.4
C.2.2
F.1.3
F.3.1
C.3.1
F.2.1-3
F.3.3-4
C.3.3
F.3.2
H.3.3
F.2.4
H.1-3
O.1.3,4
F.2.5
H.2.1,2
O.2.3
H.1.4
H.2.4
S.1.1-2
H.2.3
H.3.1
S.1.5
O.2.1
H.3.2
S.2.1-3
S.1.3,4
O.1.1,2
S.3.1
C.2.4
O.2.2
S.3.2-5
O.3.1,2
O.2.4
C.1.1
Data Analysis #3
Table shows the categorization of OCPS Visual
Arts benchmarks for Middle School (VA.68). The
blocks in color represent those benchmarks that
can be used for district assessment
Phase 1: Aesthetic Expression
Art Talk / Art History / Art Vocabulary
Phase 2: Art Creation (performance)
Drawing component / Technical aspects of art making
Phase 3: Reflective Writing
Personal reflection / Art vocabulary /
Explains and defends artistic decisions
Choosing an Achievement Standard for
District Assessment
 Follows recommendations by C.L.
Armstrong, 1996
 Selection of achievement standards
should generate images that demonstrate
visible evidence of achievement
◦ key terms in the benchmark that demonstrate
higher order thinking
◦ Depth-of-Knowledge Model (DOK)
 *Limitations: standards may not be clearly
defined, making instrumentation difficult
DOK
Levels,
non-subject
specific
TEST SAMPLE
Phase 1: Aesthetic Expression
Art Talk / Art History / Art Vocabulary
DOK Level 2:
PHASE 1: AESTHETIC EXPRESSION
SELF-PORTRAIT
VA.68.C.1.3: Identify qualities of exemplary artworks that are evident and
transferable to the judgment of personal artwork
DOK Level 2: Skill/Concept
Task Analysis


Students will demonstrate knowledge of art criticism and
formulate art vocabulary for use in judgment of art.
Complete Feldman’s four step criticism process.
Materials
Artwork and information: Belinda Eaton
 Pencil
 Reference sheet: Feldman Model
 Prompt
 Student answer sheet

PHASE 1: AESTHETIC
EXPRESSION
SELF-PORTRAIT
Belinda Eaton, Tattoo Girl, 2005,
giclée print
Phase 1: Comprehensions of Aesthetic Expression:
Self-Portrait
Option 2
Margo Humphrey
The History of Her Life Written
1991
color lithograph with metallic leaf
and chine colle on paper
32 x 29 1/2 in. (81.3 x 74.9 cm.)
Rating Scale
Sample of Aesthetic Expression:
Self Portrait
Qualitative
level
descriptors
Modification from: Columbia College Art Criticism Rubric
TEST SAMPLE
Phase 2: Art Creation (performance)
Drawing component / Technical aspects of art making
DOK Level 3: Strategic Thinking
PHASE 2: SAMPLE OF ART CREATION (PERFORMANCE):
STILL LIFE
VA.68.O.2.4: Select various media and techniques to communicate personal
symbols and ideas through the organization of the structural elements of art
DOK Level 3: Strategic Thinking
Task Analysis:
1. Select a topic of personal interest as a theme from
a variety of printed material
2. Create a two-dimensional studio piece that
requires specifying a problem, designing and
constructing a solution
3. Choose and use elements, principles, style, media,
and technique that will best express intended
meaning
PHASE 2: SAMPLE OF ART CREATION (PERFORMANCE):
STILL LIFE
VA.68.O.2.4: Select various media and techniques to communicate personal
symbols and ideas through the organization of the structural elements of art
DOK Level 3: Strategic Thinking
Materials:
 10X14 white paper
 10X14 black paper
 Set of 4 shading pencils
 sharpener
 Set of 8 markers, thick and thin
 Glue stick
 Scissors
 Set of 8 bright colored card stock
 Set of oil pastels
 Artwork reference sheets
 Other printed material of objects
Trevor Winkfield
Still Life with Fish II
1998
Material
acrylic on linen
19 x 22
Roy Lichtenstein
Untitled (Still Life with Portrait of Woman)
1997
Graphite and colored pencils on paper
11 15/16 x 8 7/8 inches30.3 x 22.5 cm
Sample of Art Creation (Performance): Still Life
Reference Authentic Artwork to include in printed sources
Rating Scale
Sample of Art Creation (Performance): Still Life
Qualitative level descriptors
TEST SAMPLE
Phase 3: Reflective Writing
Personal reflection
Explains and defends artistic decisions
Art vocabulary
DOK Level 4: Extended Thinking
SAMPLE OF REFLECTIVE WRITING:
ARTIST STATEMENT
VA.68.F.2.5: Create an artist statement to reflect on personal artwork for a
portfolio or exhibition
DOK Level 4: Extended Thinking
Task Analysis:
1. Write an artist statement based on a prompt that
explains and defends your artistic solution.
Materials
1. Artwork from Phase 2
2. Prompt
3. Feldman’s model of criticism
4. Pencil
5. Student answer sheet
6. Reference artwork from Phase 1 and 2
Rating Scale
Sample of
Reflective
Writing:
Artist Statement
Modified from: ReadWriteThink.org
Adjudication

This proposal provides a successful framework for authentic
assessment that measures what student should know in Visual Arts
education:
◦ Promotes student learning
◦ Informs teaching and learning with the benchmarks
◦ Provides evidence of what students are able to in the Visual Arts
◦ Assists in the improvement of student learning and teaching
◦ Is all-encompassing, content-rich and include a performance
piece, which is a much better indicator of student achievement
in Visual Arts
◦ Aligns with NGSSS standards and DOK model of rigor
Successful assessment in the Visual Arts guides program development,
curriculum design and classroom instruction.
References

Art Criticism Paper Rubric, Columbia College, SC. Retrieved from http://www.columbiasc.edu/files/pdf/ArtCriticismRubric.pdf.

Armstrong, C. L. (1996). A choice: comfortable ambiguity or clearly translated standards. Studies In Art Education, 37253-256.

Brewer, T. (2010). Lessons learned from a Bundles Visual Arts Assessment. Visual Arts Research. (paper provisional accepted for publication)

Chudowsky, N. & Pellegrino, J. W.(2003). Large-Scale Assessments That Support Learning: What Will It Take?<i>Theory Into Practice</i> 42(1), 75-83. Ohio State
University College of Education. Retrieved June 3, 2012, from Project MUSE database.

Diket, R. (2012). What did Students Do in Their Critical Analysis of 5 Mother/Child Artworks Presented in the 1997 and 2008 NAEP Arts with Whatever They Knew
about Art, from Wherever Opportunity to Learn Source? Paper presented at AERA 2012, Vancouver, BC

Fraenkel, J.R., Hyunn, H.H., & Wallen, N.E. (2006). Preparing Research Proposal and Research Reports. (6th ed.). How to design and evaluate research in education (pp.
616-642). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

Herpin, S., Li, J., Quinn, A. (2012). Improving the Assessment of Student Learning in the Arts – State of the Field and Recommendations Study Commissioned by The
National Endowment for the Arts, i-148. Retrieved from http://www.nea.gov/research/ArtsLearning/WestEd.pdf

Keiper, S., B.A.Sandene, H. R. Persky, and M. Kuang. (2009). The Nation’s Report Card: Arts 2008 Music & Visual Arts (NCES 2009-488) National Center for Education
Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, Washington, D.C. Available at: http://nationsreportcard.gov/arts_2008/

Lankford, E. (1990). Preparation and Risk in Teaching Aesthetics. Art Education, 43(5), 51-56. Art Criticism Rubric, Columbia College

Orange County Public Schools. (201-2012). OCPS Visual Arts Performance Assessment: Administration Guide. Orlando, Fl.

Parsad, B., and Speigelman, M. (2012). Arts Education in Public Elementary and Secondary Schools: 1999-2000 and 2009-10 (NCES 2012-014). National Center for
Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC

Pistone, N. (2002). Envisioning arts assessment: a process guide for assessing art education in school districts and states. Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School
Officers.

Reflective Writing Rubric (2006). National Council for Teachers of English. Retrieved from:
http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/lesson_images/lesson963/Rubric.pdf

Smilan, C., & Miraglia, K. (2009). Art Teachers as Leaders of Authentic Art Integration. Art Education, 62(6), 39-45.

Webb N. Issues Related to Judging the Alignment of Curriculum Standards and Assessments. Applied Measurement In Education [serial online]. January 2007;20(1):7-25.
Available from: Education Full Text (H.W. Wilson), Ipswich, MA. Accessed June 19, 2012

Wiggins, G., ERIC Clearinghouse on Tests, M. C., & American Institutes for Research, W. C. (1990). The Case for Authentic Assessment. ERIC Digest.

Images

(Eaton, 2005)

(Humphrey, 1991)

(Lichtenstein, 1997)

(Winkfield, 1998)

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