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Lesson 2 • Motivation Enhance Students’ Desire to Succeed 1 Lesson 2 • Motivation Enhance Students’ Desire to Succeed Two Factors Affecting Motivation • Value Expectancy x Value = Motivation If either value is 0 . . . – The degree to which one values the rewards that accompany succeeding at that task. • Expectancy – The degree to which an individual expects to be successful at the task. 2 Lesson 2 • Motivation Enhance Students’ Desire to Succeed • The first two tasks focus on increasing the Expectancy factor in the motivation equation. Expectancy x Value = Motivation If either value is 0 . . . • These are tasks you can implement to enhance students’ belief in their ability to be successful. 3 Task 1: Present Tasks in a Manner That Will Generate Enthusiasm I have identified specific ways I can present tasks to students which will generate enthusiasm and intrinsic motivation on their part. These include, but are not limited to: • explaining how or why the task will be useful to students; 4 Task 1: Present Tasks in a Manner That Will Generate Enthusiasm • giving students a vision of what they will eventually be able to do; • relating new tasks to previously learned skills; and • rallying the enthusiasm and energy of students, particularly when I ask them to do something difficult or challenging. 5 Task 2: Implement Effective Instruction Practices I understand that instructional style has a significant impact on student behavior. I have identified one or two aspects of my presentation style that I will work to improve the course of the year. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ss2hULhX f04 6 Task 2: Implement Effective Instruction Practices I have made plans to improve my presentational style by: • Varying the tone of my voice to avoid monotony • Varying the intensity of my presentation so I am not always excited or always calm • Using humor • Clarifying lesson purpose • Clarifying information 7 Task 2: Implement Effective Instruction Practices I have made plans to actively involve students in lessons. Following are strategies I can use: • Asking questions • Giving students tasks to work on in pairs • Presenting small tasks for students to work on independently • Giving mini quizzes • Setting up role plays • Presenting guided practice of tasks students will work on later 8 Task 2: Implement Effective Instruction Practices • Think of an idea beyond those suggested in this program for actively involving students in lesson. Be ready to share your ideas with others. • • • • • • • • • • • Games Student teach Scavenger hunt Teacher participate with students What if… When did you get it? Use technology – video clips, etc. Simultaneous round table Bust the teacher Whole-brain learning (proper noun – straight; improper – slouch) Projects Lesson 2 • Motivation Enhance Students’ Desire to Succeed • The next four tasks focus on increasing the Value factor Motivation equation. Expectancy x Value = Motivation If either value is 0 . . . • These are tasks you can implement to enhance students’ motivation to: – follow your rules. – achieve your goals and instructional expectations. 10 Task 3: Build Positive Relationships with Students • When you build positive relationships and provide frequent positive feedback, you motivate students to demonstrate their best behavior. 11 Task 3: Build Positive Relationships with Students • Students work harder when they like and respect their teacher and feel the teacher cares about them. • One way to demonstrate to students that you value them as individuals is through the use of non-contingent attention. 12 Task 3: Build Positive Relationships with Students • Non-contingent attention, involves giving students time and attention not because of anything they’ve done, but just because you notice and value them as people. 13 Task 3: Build Positive Relationships with Students • I have considered how I will provide each of my students with non-contingent attention— including, but not limited to, the following: – Greet students. – Show an interest in student work. – Invite students to ask for assistance. – Have conversations with students, when possible. – Make a special effort to talk with any student with whom I interacted regarding misbehavior. 14 Task 3: Build Positive Relationships with Students Take note Students often believe that if the teacher corrects their behavior, the teacher does not like them. Even high school teachers report that students have this misconception. By providing noncontingent attention or specific praise as soon as possible after correcting a student’s misbehavior, you send the message that you still care for the student and dissolve the tension the student may feel. 15 Task 3: Build Positive Relationships with Students • Dr. Vern Jones (1998), expert on student discipline and motivation: – Each time you interact with a student and show an interest in him or her as a person, you make a deposit. – If you make enough deposits, there will be reserve capital for those times when your may have to make a withdrawal because of student misbehavior. – Whether the withdrawal consists of a gentle reprimand, a discussion or a consequence, the more you have invested in the student, the more likely he/she is to understand that you are trying to help by correcting the behavior. 16 Task 3: Build Positive Relationships with Students • Showing an interest in students and acting friendly does not mean you should try to be a friend or a peer. – You are the teacher; – You do not want to be so friendly that you seem to be an equal; – You are the person in authority, and – You are the one that needs to intervene if there are rule violations. 17 Task 4: Provide Positive Feedback There are six hallmarks of effective positive feedback. Feedback should be: • Accurate • Specific and descriptive • Contingent • Age-appropriate • Given immediately • Given in a manner that fits your style 18 Task 4: Provide Positive Feedback I have considered the structure level of my class in determining how much positive feedback I need to give, realizing that high structure classes will need more positive feedback. But I also realize that even low structure classes will have students who cease to try to meet expectations if they do not receive positive feedback. 19 Task 4: Provide Positive Feedback If any student seems to be responding to my positive feedback with an increase in inappropriate behavior, I am prepared to make modifications to the feedback I am giving. 20 Task 4: Provide Positive Feedback WHEN STUDENTS RESPOND NEGATIVELY TO POSITIVE FEEDBACK • Common phenomenon – Embarrassed by the feedback • • • • Try modifying your feedback Make feedback more private Eliminating pauses Make sure it is age appropriate 21 Task 4: Provide Positive Feedback • Student may have an image of himself as being tough and feels they have to uphold that image or have trouble handling success. – Treat the misbehavior (the downturn after receiving positive feedback) as a momentary interruption in the student’s success. – At a neutral and reasonably private time talk to the student about her tendency to misbehave after getting positive feedback – Find a way to give the positive feedback more privately. – Switch from giving specific descriptive feedback to simply interacting with the student when she is behaving responsibly. 22 Task 5: Strive to Provide a High Ratio of Positive Interactions • I understand how important it is for me to interact with each of my students at least three times more when they are behaving responsibly than when they are misbehaving. • That is a 3:1 ratio. 23 Task 5: Strive to Provide a High Ratio of Positive Interactions This behavior management is one of the most essential but also one of the most difficult to implement. 24 Task 5: Strive to Provide a High Ratio of Positive Interactions • Remember, each time you give attention to a student, you may be reinforcing the behavior you are paying attention to- whether the behavior is positive or negative. • Thus, you should pay at least 3 times more attention to students when they are exhibiting positive behavior than when they are exhibiting negative behavior. 25 Task 5: Strive to Provide a High Ratio of Positive Interactions • Why: – Some students are starved for attention. – The form of attention may not matter. • A reprimand for misbehaving may satisfy this student’s desire for attention. In fact, the scolding may be even more satisfying because it probably lasts longer and involves greater emotional intensity from the teacher. 26 Task 6: Provide Intermittent Celebrations • Periodically reward both individual students and the whole class with a celebration that acknowledges their progress and success in meeting behavioral and academic goals. 27 Task 6: Provide Intermittent Celebrations • Make rewards unpredictable & meaningful • Key is to use these celebrations as sparingly as possible but as frequently as necessary. – Examples: • sending students to another teacher to see their work. • Calling parents and informing parent of progress. • Playing music during writing/working assignment. • Be creative about your intermittent celebrations. 28 Task 6: Provide Intermittent Celebrations • Based on the level of structure I have determined my students need, I will plan on using intermittent celebrations: – Rarely – Occasionally – Frequently 29 Task 6: Provide Intermittent Celebrations • I have identified (or have a plan for how I can identify) the kinds of rewards that are likely to be most useful with my students. 30 Conclusion This lesson covered six strategies that can help improve students motivation to follow your rules, strive toward your Guidelines for Success and achieve your goals and instructional expectations.