By: AJ Baynes 1945 • The Cold War begins after WWII when the Soviet Union tried to expand its influence around the world, and the United States tried to protect noncommunist governments. • The United States first uses the Atomic Bomb in War on Hiroshima. 1946 • Winston Churchill delivers the “Iron Curtain speech” One of its main tasks was to restrict people inhabiting the communist area from traveling outside and to restrict the information flow in it, from the non-communist world. 1947 • Truman Doctrine is adopted when the nations of Greece and Turkey were threatened by Communist expansion Congress granted 400 million to fight the guerrillas. • Secretary of State George C Marshall calls on European Nations to draft a plan for European economic recovery. The “Marshall Plan” gave aid to nations so they would not have to rely on Communist’s government. 1948 • Stalin begins the Berlin Blockade. He blocks all highways, rivers and rail traffic into West Berlin to force the Western powers out of Berlin. • The Western allies responded with the Berlin Airlift 1949 • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is established including the countries Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and United States (Later Greece, Spain, Turkey and West Germany) • Berlin blockade ends • Soviet Union explodes an atomic bomb during testing 1950-1952 • • • • North Korean troop surprise South Korea and invade their territory Peace treaty with Japan is signed, the US keeps military their for defense of Japan US exploded a hydrogen bomb at Marshall Islands Eisenhower is elected US President 1953-1954 • Korean War ends • KGB established • CIA of US helps overthrow unfriendly regime in Iran and Guatemala 1955 • Warsaw Pact was formed in response to NATO being formed. It was a military alliance with the Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Rumania. 1957 • Soviet Union launches Sputnik, the first satellite to orbit the Earth. This showed their strength in the “Space Race.” 1958-1959 • • • • • US launches Explorer I satellite into orbit Khrushchev becomes Soviet Premier NASA is established in the US Fidel Castro takes over Cuba Soviet spacecraft crashes on the moon 1960-1961 • • • • • John F Kennedy elected President of the US Soviet Yuri Gagarin is the first man to orbit the Earth Bay of Pigs invasion Alan Shepard makes a suborbital flight in a capsule Berlin border closed and wall construction begins 1962 • John Glenn is the first American to orbit the Earth. • Cuban Missile Crisis when the US has air and sea blockade of Cuba because photos of Soviet missile bases that were being built in Cuba.US makes threats to invade Cuba if the bases are not taken apart because US says if a nuclear attack launched from Cuba they would consider it a Soviet attack and would require full retaliation. • Khrushchev removes weapons from Cuba and US removes missiles from Turkey 1963-1964 • President Kennedy is assassinated • President Johnson orders retaliation in the Gulf of Tonklin for attacks on US destroyers • Khrushchev is ousted and replaced by Brezhnev and Kosygin 1965-1969 • US Marines go ashore in Vietnam • US troops go to Dominican Republic to prevent another Communist state • Apollo 11 lands on the moon 1970-1973 • Nuclear weapon treaty between US and Soviet Union prevents transfer of nuclear weapons to non nuclear nations • Kent State protests of Vietnam War • Nixon extends Vietnam war to Cambodia • Nixon and Brezhnev sign détente agreements which relaxes tensions and opens economic markets • US bombing on North Vietnam intensifies • Cease fire with North Vietnam and the US 1975-1982 • • • • • • North Vietnam defeats South Vietnam Shah of Iran overthrown US leaves Cambodia US and Soviet astronauts link up in space SALT II agreement signed limiting long range missiles by both President Carter and Brezhnev USSR invades Afghanistan and US has sanctions against them with grains, and decreased scientific and cultural exchanges. • 1980 Moscow Olympic games boycotted by US 1983-1985 President Reagan proposes Strategic Defense initiative called Star Wars to intercept enemy missiles US troop overthrow regime in Grenada Terrorist attack on US Marines in Lebanon US and USSR agree to new negotiations on nuclear and space issues 1986-1987 Gorbachev ends economic aid to Soviet satellites Reagan and Gorbachev remove all intermediate nuclear missiles from Europe Reagan and Gorbachev agree to remove all medium and short range nuclear missiles by signing treaty 1989 • • • • • • • Soviet troops withdraw from Afghanistan China puts down protests for democracy Poland becomes independent Hungary becomes independent Berlin Wall falls Communist governments fall in Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Rumania Soviet empire ends 1990-1991 • • • • Boris Yeltsin elected president of Russia Germany reunited Warsaw Pact ends End of Soviet Union Cold War Ends 1991 COLD WAR ENDS!