Classroom Systems School-wide PBIS Positive Acknowledgement Ratio Chris Borgmeier, PhD Portland State University [email protected] www.pbisclassroomsystems.pbworks.com PBIS Classroom System: Next Steps 1) Brief presentation of practice 2) Time to individualize practice to fit your classroom, context & needs 3) Brief presentation of Reminders & Supports to use your practice 4) Time to develop an individualized Plan for Support Follow Along in the 4 to 1 Ratio Guide Definitions of Acknowledgement of Positive & Problem Behavior Acknowledgment: responding to student behavior (verbal or gesture) in a way that provides attention for positive/desired behavior or problem/non-desired behavior. The focus of the acknowledgement determines whether it is a positive (response to desired behavior) or problem acknowledgement (response to non-desired behavior), while the tone and verbage should always maintain respect for the individual, the determining factor is the type (desired v. non-desired) of the behavior being acknowledged. Why Acknowledge Desired Behavior? Reinforce the teaching of new behaviors Behavior is likely to become a habit and recur in the future only if demonstrating it has been beneficial Harness the influence of kids who are showing expected behaviors to encourage the kids who are not Strengthen positive behaviors that can compete with problem behavior Improve school climate Create positive interactions and rapport with students Why Increase Positive Acknowledgements? After withdrawing praise from a classroom, off-task behavior increased from 8.7% to 25.5% When the rate of criticism was increased, off-task behavior increased from 25.5% to 31.2% with over 50% off-task behavior on some days In classes where teachers provided less than 65% positive statements, the percentage of students reporting that they like school decreased over the course of the school year In classes where teachers provided more than 70% positive statements, students reporting that they like school remained high across the school year • BECKER, ENGLEMAN, & THOMAS, 1975 5:1 Ratio Pay attention to What you Want to See Acknowledge positive behavior 5 times more often that you respond to negative behavior Keep it genuine; not the same for all kids Negative interactions are not wrong and are sometimes necessary; the key is the ratio There is a ceiling effect at 13 to 1 – but we are at very little risk of achieving this in schools; more often we are at 1:1 or even more negatives than positives 5:1 ratio, it’s not just for kids Business teams High Performance teams = 5.6 to 1 Medium Performance teams = 1.9:1 Low Performance teams = 1 to 2.7 Losada, 1999; Losada & Heaphy 2004 Married couples that last 5.1 to for speech acts and 4.7 to 1 for observed emotions Gottman, 1994 Gottman Study: 5 to 1 Ratio predicted whether 700 newlywed couples would stay together or divorce by scoring their positive and negative interactions in one 15-minute conversation between each husband and wife. Ten years later, the follow-up revealed that they had predicted divorce with 94% accuracy. Marriages that last: 5.1 to 1 for speech acts and 4.7 to 1 for observed emotions Marriages likely to end in divorce: 1 (+) to1.3 (-) ratio likely to end up in divorce Non-contingent Attention Provides time and attention that is not tied to performance Fulfills the need to be noticed and valued Benefits Student teacher rapport Positive role-model for social interaction Improved climate overall Greeting, show interest, invite questions, interest conversations, provides opportunity to relate to all students – even those with challenging behavior Positive Interactions Positive interactions can be provided in a variety of ways: verbal praise nonverbal acknowledgement positive feedback re: appropriate behavior smiling, nodding, winking non-contingent attention welcoming, greeting, asking if assistance is needed Research on Praise & Acknowledging Positive Behavior Praise has the strongest research, with increases shown in: Students’ correct responses Work productivity and accuracy Academic performance On-task behavior and attention Compliance, positive comments about self Cooperative play Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, Myers, & Sugai, 2008 Critical Features of Acknowledgement Acknowledgment of Positive Behavior (praise) is most effective if it is immediate, specific, sincere, varied, student referenced Immediate Specific: explicitly describes the desired behavior performed Sincere: credible and authentic Varied: varied word choice, varied academic and behavior praise, whole group, small group and individual Student referenced: compares student performance to previous performance and does not compare students to others; acknowledge effort Positive Acknowledgement/ Praise examples “Excellent job listening and following directions the first time.” “Your eyes are on me and your mouth is quiet. Thank you for being ready to learn.” “Wow, you completed your math work correctly before the end of class.” When Acknowledging Positive Behavior Identify the specific behavior being acknowledged Link the behavior to one of the SW-Rules GOOD EXAMPLE “Wow, thank you for helping to clean up the spill, that was very Responsible of you” NOT AS GOOD “Thank you, good job!” Procedural Steps for increasing Positive Acknowledgement Ratio 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Identify challenging times, routines and behaviors that occur throughout the day Identify desired behaviors to focus on praising, particularly during challenging times Identify a range of phrases, gestures, methods for acknowledging targeted desired behaviors, particularly identify ways to replace corrections with acknowledgement of proximal peers for desired behavior Monitor for desired behaviors & acknowledge individuals or group of students immediately following desired behavior Implement personal prompts and monitoring to encourage replacement of corrections with acknowledgments Increase positive feedback ID a specific problem behavior you would like to see less of and define the opposite of this behavior Teach the expected behavior, ignore the problem behavior and “catch” the students meeting expectations w/ specific positive feedback Coaching Classroom Management, 2006 Decrease corrections Ignore minor misbehavior, if attention seeking in nature; provide positive feedback to students engaged in positive behavior Ensure students know expectations – teach/re-teach & provide positive feedback Provide “precorrections” in advance to set up positive behavior Coaching Classroom Management, 2006 Step 1: Identify Challenges & Positive Acknowledgements Your Turn Take a few minutes to Complete Step 1 of the Worksheet Remember, we’d like to collect a copy of your worksheet at the end of the training today to plan for support FLIP THE RATIO Trading Negative Acknowledgements for Positive Your Turn Take a few minutes to Complete Step 2 of the Worksheet Share your strategies with a partner Instruction influences behavior Environmental management “…Much teacher praise is reactive to and under the control of student behavior rather than vice versa.” (Brophy, 1981) Set up Systems to Increase Positive Acknowledgement Good Behavior Game (whole group contingency) T-chart Teach behavioral expectations Student points for positive behavior following expectations Teacher gets points for negative behavior Hand out Acknowledgement Tokens or Tallies for positive behavior Small Group Contingency • Pros & Considerations • • • Promotes team work -- reward is given to all members of a group. Uses peer influences to correct inappropriate behavior The Team competition can promote higher interest and participation Can result in conflict within the classroom Individual performance can affect the entire group. • Must teach appropriate, respectful ways to encourage and redirect peer behavior Group may not have equal chance for success (may need to change the groups periodically) Example: Small Group Contingency Mrs. Robinson’s class is divided into 4 groups. • Example A: Members of the group help earn tokens for their groups. Groups that earn at least 20 tokens by the end of the day compete in the “Who Wants To Be A Millionaire” game. • Example B: The group with the most points gets to be the first dismissed to lunch. • Example C: The 2 groups receiving the highest number of tokens for the day get a “free homework” pass. • Less Competitive Alternative: When a group gets to 20 points each member of the group earns 5 extra minutes of break time ACTIVITY: Discuss Ways to Encourage & Monitor your Ratio Post a visual reminder to praise students in area viewed frequently Praise in Pairs: After praising one student, find another student exhibiting similar behavior to praise Acknowledge creatively – use gestures (thumbs up, OK sign, clapping, nod, high five) tangibles (stickers, stars), points toward whole class or individual reward, calling parent to report student success Monitoring Move Pennies or paperclips from one pocket to other based positive & negative acknowledgements Index Card Tearing (long side for positive, short side for negative) Hash marks on tape on your arm or pant leg Step 3: Individual Plan for Prompting & Supporting Practice Your Turn Take a few minutes to Complete Step 3 of the Worksheet Make sure to Identify meaningful& feasible supports Identify Personal Strategies for supporting implementation Develop Peer Strategies for support – you can discuss with a peer Team & School-wide Supports Team Supports (e.g. Dept., Grade Level, PLC) Make Classroom improvement a regular part of meetings and activities Begin meeting w/ 2 minute check: Check-in, share ideas & give feedback to: Encourage implementation Check-in, problem solve, enhance implementation School-wide Supports Reminder on Morning announcements Regular review/check-in at staff meeting Rewards for implementers Recognize your Buddy Recognize someone you observed engage in the practice Daily or weekly implementation checks via email link Put sticker on staff board to rate implementation Group Discussion What school-wide strategies would be helpful for you in supporting your implementation? Regular reminders over announcements? Staff meeting review & sharing? Collect implementation data? Daily email, survey monkey? References Descriptive Readings Brophy, J. (1981). Teacher Praise: A Functional Analysis. Review of Educational Research, 51(1), 5-32. Conroy, M. A., Sutherland, K. S., Snyder, A., Al-Hendawi, M. & Vo, A. (2009). Creating a positive classroom atmosphere: Teachers’ use of effective praise and feedback. Beyond Behavior, 18(2), pp. 18-26. Gable, R. A., Hester, P. H., Rock, M. L., & Hughes, K. G. (2009). Back to Basics Rules, Praise, Ignoring, and Reprimands Revisited. [Article]. Intervention in School and Clinic, 44(4), 195-205. Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D. & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for Research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), pp. 351380. Sprick, R., Knight, J., Reinke, W., Skyles, T., & Barnes, L. (2009). Coaching Classroom Management: Strategies and tools for administrators and coaches (2nd ed). Pacific NorthWest Publishing, Eugene, OR. Research Studies demonstrating outcomes associated with the use of praise to reprimand Becker, W.C., Engelmann, S., & Thomas, D.R. (1975). Teaching 2: Cognitive Learning and Instruction. Chicago: Science Research Associates. Pfiffner, L. J., Rosen, L. A., & O'Leary, S. G. (1985). The efficacy of an all-positive approach to classroom management. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18(3), 257-261. Sutherland, K. S., Wehby, J. H., & Copeland, S. R. (2000). Effect of varying rates of behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of students with EBD. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 8(1), 2-+. Relationship between praise, rewards, and intrinsic motivation Akin-Little, K. A., Eckert, T. L., Lovett, B. J., & Little, S. G. (2004). Extrinsic reinforcement in the classroom: Bribery or best practice. [Article]. School Psychology Review, 33(3), 344-362. Cameron, J., & Pierce, W. D. (1994). Reinforcement, Reward, and Intrinsic Motivation: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 64(3), 363-423. Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 125(6), 627-668.