Chapter 28 Section 3

The Cold War Turns Hot
Pages 844-850
Section 3 Objectives
 1. Explain how the Chinese communists gained
control of china.
 2. Analyze the factors that led to the escalation of
the conflict in Korea.
 3. describe the domestic and international effects
of the Korean War.
 4. Discuss the methods that President Eisenhower
used to promote U.S. interests abroad.
 Looking at the countries of North Korea and South
Korea consider the reasons for and against U.S.
involvement in a war in such a distant place.
Communist Victory in China
 Chiang Kai-shek: The 1920s led to a civil war between the
Kuomintang or Nationalist Party up against the Communist
Party. During WWII both the Communist and Nationalist
parties teamed up together to defeat the Japanese. After the war
the Communists promoted themselves for protecting the
northeast part of China from the Japanese.
 Mao Zedong: Communist leader that made reforms that gave
land to the peasants. He also increased his military recruitment.
 United States: didn’t want the expansion of Communism into
China. George C. Marshall went to China to arrange a
compromise in 1945 neither side would budge.
 1949: The Nationalists under Chiang retreated to Taiwan an
island off the southeast coast of China. The U.S. didn’t recognize
the new government of China known as the People’s Republic of
The Korean War Begins
 Japan had ruled over Korea from 1910-1945 when the Soviet and
U.S. troops drove them out at the end of WWII. The Allies chose
to divide Korea into two zones. Soviets to the north and U.S. to
the south.
 A Divided Korea-This arrangement was to be temporary, but by
1948 each zone had setup individual governments.
 Kim Il Sung, leader of the Communist North, known as
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. He was in his midthirties when he became premier of North Korea. Guerilla fighter
in the 1930s, he opposed the Japanese occupation. Received
training in the Soviet Union.
 Syngman Rhee, Republic of Korea. He was in his seventies
when he became president of South Korea. Strong
anticommunist and advocate for Korean independence. 30 years
of his life was in political exile in the U.S.
Bitter Fighting
 General Douglas MacArthur: U.S. forces were under his
command. U.S. 7th Fleet ordered to protect Taiwan.
 The North Koreans—overran the South Koreans with Soviet
weapon power. By September, 1950 the North had nearly all of
South Korea. The U.S. and Korea were backed into an area
around the port city of Pusan.
 September 15,1950: MacArthur counterattacks with an invasion
into Inch’on and on to recapture Seoul. By late October the
North Koreans were pushed back to the Yalu River at around the
38th parallel.
 November, China’s foreign minister: Jou En-lai-explained
why China decided to enter the war on the North Korean side.
Outnumbered the U.S. and UN forces backed up to the 38th
parallel establishing a defensive line.
Ending the Korean War
 China now involved MacArthur wanted to blockade China’s
coast, let Chiang Kai-shek military to invade the mainland, and
we would bomb the interior .
 Debate was high and many were concerned that the Soviets
would get involved if China was attacked.
 Conflict between Truman and MacArthur: President Truman
opposed MacArthur plan to attack China. He felt this was a
limited conflict and didn’t want another world war. MacArthur
criticized the president and appealed to the Congress.
MacArthur delivered an ultimatum to the enemy unconditional
surrender. This angered Truman would wanted to have peace
 April, 1951-Truman removed MacArthur as commander in
Korea. Many people were upset in the U.S. and welcomed
MacArthur as a hero.
 Summer, 1951: War had turned into a stalemate and little
territory had changed.
 The Election of 1952: Truman was confronted with all
kinds of issues. He had the Korean War, firing of Douglas
MacArthur, and peace talks not moving forward. He
decided not to run again for president.
 Dwight D. Eisenhower: Republican, WWII General and
war hero. Richard M. Nixon would be his running mate.
 Adlai Stevenson: Governor of Illinois will be the
Democratic candidate. John Sparkman would be his
running mate.
The war ends
 Eisenhower used military force to move peace
negotiations forward. 1953 he stepped up the bombing
in North Korea and even threatened use of nuclear
weapons to end the conflict.
 July 27, 1953: armistice was negotiated at about the
38th parallel. This was the division before the conflict
and many questioned why the human losses.
Fighting Communism Abroad
 During the tenure of the Eisenhower administration the
feeling that nuclear arms and technology were important
to end the expansion of communism.
 The policy of Brinkmanship: the threat of massive
retaliation –this included the use of nuclear weapons.
 Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles: called for
liberation of communist aggression and don’t back down.
 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA): Eisenhower was
about using covert means and diplomacy. He used the
newly formed agency to gather information and pursue
Cold War goals.
 Covert war and the CIA: Supporting the overthrow of the
Iranian premier Mohammad Mosaddeq. Pro-American the shah
of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi..
 1954-Guatemala: CIA overthrew Arbenz Guzman for being procommunist.
 The Suez Crisis: 1956 – U.S. government withdrew an offer to
finance a large dam in Egypt. Egypt leader Gamal Abdel Nasser
nationalized the Suez Canal. This move could have an impact of
western oil trade. In 1956-Israel, Great Britain, and France
launched an attack in the Suez area. The Soviets threatened the
nations if they didn’t withdraw.
 Eisenhower Doctrine, 1957: Eisenhower offered military aid to
any Middle Eastern nation resisting Communist invasion.
Uprising in Eastern Europe
 Nikita Khrushchev: assumed power in the Soviet
Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. The Soviets put
down a rebellion in Budapest, Hungary. Eisenhower
did not want to invade Eastern Europe due to fear of
nuclear war. He did ease on immigration laws to allow
for more Eastern Europeans into the United States.
Brief Thaw in the Cold War
 1959: Vice President Nixon visited the Soviet Union and
Khrushchev visited United States. He visited Iowa,
Pennsylvania steel mills, and California movie studios. The
press loved him and he and Eisenhower agreed to meet in
Paris, France the following year to discuss arms reduction.
 May, 1960: Right before the talks, Khrushchev announced
an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet
Union. The U.S. said it was a weather research plane. The
pilot Francis Gary Powers admitted to the spy mission. U-2
incident – decidedly changed the relationship between
Khrushchev and Eisenhower. The Soviet leader refused to
meet with Eisenhower again even though he promised it
wouldn’t happen again. The incident created the Cold War
all over again.

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