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Report
The Four Purusarthas
“Kamala”
Jordan C.
Jenae R.
Taylor V.
Hunter B.
Hindu Beliefs (4 goals of human life)
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Dharma
Kama
Artha
Moksha
Dharma
• The moral balance of all things
• Order and customs which make life and universe
possible
• The noun dharma derived from the word root
“dhr” means “to hold, maintain, keep”.
• Other definitons:
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Right way of living
Path of righteousness
Duty
Moral law
Dharma
Non-violence
Duties
Law and Justice
Rituals and Rites of Passage
Personal Behaviors
Dharma
• "Dharma means the intrinsic nature of a thing.
Just like the dharma of sugar is sweetness and
the dharma of water is wetness. The dharma
of the living being is to render service
to God. Therefore everyone serves God
without fail, either directly or indirectly. The
devotees serve Him directly and the nondevotees serve Him indirectly."
Kama
• Broader sense- means desire/longing
• Narrow sense- Sexual desire
• Both Buddhism and Hinduism consider this as
the root cause of human suffering.
Kama (Vedes)
• Concept of Kama is known to be found in Vedas.
– Ex) book 10 of Rig Veda describes the creation of the
universe from nothing by the great heat. There in hymn
129, it states:
• कामस्तदग्रे समवततताधि मनसो रे तः परथमं यदासीत |
सतो बन्िम
ु सतत तनरववन्दन हर्दत परतीष्याकवयो मनीषा
||[10]
“Thereafter rose Desire in the beginning, Desire the
primal seed and germ of Spirit,
Sages who searched with their heart's thought
discovered the existent's kinship in the non-existent.”
• —Rig Veda, ~ 15th Century BC[11]
Kama (Upanishads)
• Brhadaranyaka Upanishad(one of the oldest
Upanishads of Hinduism),uses the term kama
as any desire:
• Man consists of desire (kāma),
As his desire is, so is his determination,
As his determination is, so is his deed,
Whatever his deed is, that he attains.
• —Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, 7th Century BC[12]
(Kama)la – Hindu Goddess of Love
• A very high prices Indian Courtesan, trained in
the art of love. Siddhartha lusts for her love
(Desires her sexually) , but she will not be
with him.. Due to the fact of his dirty cloths
and not being clean.
• He needs to earn money in order to pay for
her services.
(Kama)la
Kama -Courtesan
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High class call girls
Taught about love
Cost a lot
Desired by all
Only those of certain standing could have
them
Kama- Courtesan
Artha
• Definitions:
– Wealth
– Money
– Possessions
– Worldly Prosperity
– Profit
– Attainment of riches
(powerful urge in human nature)
Artha
• The efforts of means to realizing this goal:
must have a righteous and moral basis.
• (lawful means)
• Siddh/artha
– Sidd = achieved
– Artha = what was searched for
• “he was has found meaning of existence”.
Artha
• In order for Siddhartha to get Kamala, he must
find Artha (wealth).
Moksha (Nirvana)
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Salvation
Freedom
Liberation from rebirth
Emancipation
Release
State of changeless bliss
Appears in Upanishads as “Mucyate”
Moksha
• It is achieved by living a life of
– Religious devotion
– Moral integrity
– No interest in worldly things,
Can be lifetimes on the wheel of life till Moksha
(Nirvana) is achieved.
Reward: release from samsara and union with God.
Moksha senses
• Eschtological: Connects to freedom from
Samsara, the cycle of death, and rebirth.
• Epistemological: connects freedom, selfrealization, and self-knowledge.
• Concept is found in Jainism, Buddhism, and
Hinduism.
Moksha
• “It was through me the Creator himself gained liberating
knowledge,
I am being, conciousness, bliss, eternal freedom: unsullied,
unlimited, unending.
My perfect consciousness shines your world, like a beautiful face in
a soiled mirror,
Seeing that reflection I wish myself you, an individual soul, as if I
could be finite!”
“A finite soul, an infinite Goddess - these are false concepts,
in the minds of those unacquainted with truth,
No space, my loving devotee, exists between your self and my self,
Know this and you are free. This is the secret wisdom.”
• —Sarasvati Rahasya Upanishad,
Moksha
Works Cited (URLS)
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<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dharma>
<http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/siddhartha/section2.rhtml>
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kama>
<https://www.google.com/search?site=imghp&tbm=isch&source=hp&biw=1347&
bih=719&q=Kamala&oq=Kamala&gs_l=img.3..0l10.1607.2921.0.3506.6.3.0.0.0.0.3
85.1116.33.3.0....0...1ac.1.42.img..3.3.1109.DrlLdyhTMzg#q=Kamala+hindu+god+of+love&tb
m=isch&facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=Rp2TYuY5oESiM%253A%3BM_TJh3vX4dhhfM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fjourneyingtothegod
dess.files.wordpress.com%252F2012%252F08%252F2547787695_3dc66a1c8e.jpg
%253Fw253D640%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fjourneyingtothegoddess.wordpress.
com%252F2012%252F08%252F26%252Fgoddess-kamala%252F%3B500%3B362>
http://www.online-literature.com/hesse/siddhartha/http://www.onlineliterature.com/hesse/siddhartha/http://www.onlineliterature.com/hesse/siddhartha/
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http://www.online-literature.com/hesse/siddhartha/
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moksha

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