File - Reading to the Core

Report
Guided Highlighted Reading:
A Strategy for Reading
Complex Text
International Reading Association 2012
Elaine Weber, Macomb ISD
Barbara Nelson, Consultant
Cynthia Schofield, Harper Creek Schools
Carrie Wozniak, Fraser Public Schools1
Goals for the Session
You will
O Understand the relationship of GHR to the
Common Core State Standards.
O Know how to implement GHR, a research-
based strategy for scaffolding deep reading
of complex text.
2
Have you ever had one of
those moments?
3
We had one of those moments!
We thought we knew the all the effects
of GHR:
Students are able to…
O summarize text.
O recognize different text structures.
O analyze text using the language of craft.
O understand the vocabulary of complex text.
O identify multiple-choice patterns and answer
questions more successfully.
4
And why it works…
O Engages students in the text
O Gives students the language of
analysis
O Points out the salient points of text
O Provides opportunities to learn the
predictable patterns of text.
5
Effects of Repeated Reading
book A
book B
book C
Timothy Rasinski – IRA Webinar 2/15/2012
7
Repeated Reading
O Wide Reading
(reading one text
after another only
once)
O Deep Reading
(repeated reading of
the same text)
8
Research has shown that students
benefit from rereading texts. While the
repeated reading method was initially
created to increase reading fluency,
researchers found that it positively
impacted sight word recognition and
comprehension as well.
Samuels, 1997
9
Some of the effects from
research…
O Repeated reading represents an educational
strategy for building reading fluency in which a
student rereads a passage until meeting a
criterion level (Dahl, 1977; Samuels, 1979).
O Research shows that repeated reading can
facilitate growth in reading fluency and other
aspects of reading achievement (Adams,
1990; NRP, 2000; Therrien, 2004).
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11
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SMARTER Balanced Assessment Consortium
Assessments of the Common Core State Standards
for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/
Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects
O Overall Claim (Gr 3-8) - Students can demonstrate
progress toward college and career readiness in
English language arts and literacy.
O Overall Claim (High School) - Students can
demonstrate college and career readiness in
English language arts and literacy.
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SMARTER Balanced
Four Major Claims
O Claim #1 - Students can read closely and analytically to
comprehend a range of increasingly complex literary
and informational texts.
O Claim #2 - Students can produce effective and wellgrounded writing for a range of purposes and
audiences.
O Claim #3 - Students can employ effective speaking and
listening skills for a range of purposes and audiences.
O Claim #4 - Students can engage in research/inquiry to
investigate topics, and to analyze, integrate, and
present information.
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Thoreau’s Walden
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Sample Performance Task
for Informational Text
O Students provide an objective summary of the
following excerpt from Henry David Thoreau’s
Walden”) [RI.11–12.2];
O Students determine the meaning of words and
phrases as they are used in a text, including
figurative (metaphor) and connotative (allusion)
meanings [RI.11–12.4]; and
O Students determine an author’s purpose (craft) in
a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective,
analyzing how style and content contribute to the
power, persuasiveness, or beauty of the text.
[RI.11–12.6]
17
Guided Highlighted Reading
for three purposes
O Vocabulary
O Summary
O Craft
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GHR for Vocabulary and Summary
Vocabulary
O In line #1, find and highlight the word that means intentionally.
O In line #5, find and highlight the word that means essence.
O In line #7, find and highlight the word that means of little
value.
O In line #8, find and highlight the word that means magnificent.
O In line #10, find and highlight the phrase that means quickly
decided without thought. (hastily concluded)
Summary
O In lines #1 and #2, find and highlight what Thoreau wants to
find and what he wants to learn.
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GHR for Craft
O In lines #1-4, find and highlight the pronoun that is used seven times to
O
O
O
O
O
emphasize that this passage is told from the first person point of view.
A literary allusion is a reference to a well-known piece of literature or
something that is historically important. In line #5, find and highlight
the allusion Thoreau uses to show that he wants to live strongly and
simply.
Imagery is the use of vivid description to create pictures, or images, in
the reader's mind. In lines #5 and #6, find and highlight the imagery
Thoreau uses create a picture of what he would like to do to “life
Strong or vivid verbs tell the reader more about how a person does
something. In line #6, find and highlight two or three strong verbs that
show what Thoreau plans to do to “life.”
Repetition is the simple repeating of a word in order to emphasize an
idea. In lines #7 and #8, find and highlight the pronoun referring to life
that is repeated four times.
In lines #7 and #8, find and highlight the two words Thoreau uses to
20
contrast different opinions about life.
Horses and Hurricanes
Text Structure
Sample Performance Task for Informational Texts:
O Students identify the overall structure of ideas, concepts, and
information in Seymour Simon’s Horses (based on factors such
as their speed and color) and compare and contrast that
scheme to the one employed by Patricia Lauber in her book
Hurricanes: Earth’s Mightiest Storms. [RI.5.5: Compare and
contrast the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison,
cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or
information in two or more texts.]
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Contrast/Differences:
Speed and Color
23
Craft: Contrast Prompts
O * In line #2, find and highlight the two words that tell
the difference or contrast in speed between a horse’s
walk and gallop. (“slowest” and “fastest”)
O * To contrast or show how horses’ gaits are different,
the author describes how parts of a horse’s body
moves. In lines #3 and #4, find and highlight the
words that refer to parts of a horse’s body. (hoof (1
time) and leg (4 times))
O * In lines #3 and #4, find and highlight the
description of a horse walking. (“…each hoof leaves
the ground at a different time. It moves one hind leg
first, and then the front leg on the same side; then
the other hind leg and the other front leg.”)
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Contrast/Differences
O * The author points out that horses are
named for their coat colors and markings
and shows that brown horses are named for
the range of their color. In line #13, find and
highlight names for dark brown horses.
(“bays and chestnuts”)
25
Comparisons/Likenesses
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Craft: Comparison Prompts
O * In lines #3-#5, find and highlight the signal word that is
repeated four times showing that hurricanes, typhoons, and
cyclones are alike or similar.
O * In line #3, find and highlight the two phrases containing the
word “same” that show that the storms are alike or similar.
O * In lines #4 and #5, find and highlight the two phrases
containing the word “same” that show that the storms are
alike or similar.
O * In line #8, find and highlight the words the author uses to
introduce more similarities or things that make storms alike.
27
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Lincoln and Monk:
Two texts on the same topic
with different perspectives
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“The Gettysburg Address”
“Words We Live By”
Sample Performance Task for Informational Texts:
O Read and analyze how “The Gettysburg Address”
and “Words We Live By” present the idea of our
nation being governed by “the people,” and how the
term “the people” evolved. Use evidence from the
text. [RI.7. 9: Analyze how two or more authors
writing about the same topic shape their
presentations of key information by emphasizing
different evidence or advancing different
interpretations of facts]
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Lincoln, Abraham. “Gettysburg Address.” (1863)
Fourscore and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth upon this continent a
new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men
are created equal.
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any
nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great
battlefield of that war. We are met to dedicate a portion of it as the final restingplace of those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is
altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.
But in a large sense we cannot dedicate,—we cannot consecrate,—we cannot
hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have
consecrated it far above our power to add or detract. The world will little note,
nor long remember, what we say here, but it can never forget what they did
here. It is for us, the living, rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work
that they have thus far so nobly carried on. It is, rather for us to be here
dedicated to the great task remaining before us, that from these honored dead
we take increased devotion to that cause for which they here gave the last full
measure of devotion; that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have
died in vain; that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom, and
that Government of the people, by the people and for the people, shall not
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perish from the earth.
O
What makes this speech complex?
The Gettysburg Address
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Who are “We the people?”
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SMARTER Balanced
Four Major Claims
O Claim #1 - Students can read closely
and critically analytically to
comprehend a range of increasingly
complex literary and informational
texts.
34
How did they get to be
“We the people?”
35
It is text-based and
measurable
36
Critical?
O Why did it take so long to include women in
“the people?”
O Were those soldiers that were honored at
Gettysburg included in “the people?”
O What was the real purpose of the civil war
according to the Gettysburg Address?
O Were “We the people” at the signing of the
Constitution different from the ”of the people,
by the people, for the people” called for in the
Gettysburg Address?
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Reading the World For Texts
and Performance Tasks
38
http://earthhabitat.files.wordpress.com/2010/02/eartheye.jpg
Asian-Americans rejoice as Lin smashes stereotypes
http://nbcsports.msnbc.com/id/46428571/ns/sports-nba/
“Asian-Americans rejoice as Lin smashes stereotypes”
by Jesse Washington, Associated Press
39
http://articles.cnn.com/2012-02-20/opinion/opinion_yu-jeremy-lin_1_asian-americans-jeremy-lin-stereotypes?_s=PM:OPINION
Will Jeremy Lin’s success end
stereotypes?
February 20, 2012|By Timothy Yu, Special to CNN
40
The Invisible Becomes Visible
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Scaffold Students
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Performance Task:
The two articles, “Will Jeremy Lin’s success end stereotypes?” and “AsianAmericans rejoice as Lin smashes stereotypes.” refer to the potential impact
of Jeremy Lin upon racial stereotypes. Determine the point of view or
purpose of the texts and the authors’ use of rhetoric to convey their
individual messages. Provide evidence from the texts. (Grade 11/12 RI 6
Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text in which the
rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute
to the power, persuasiveness, or beauty of the text.)
43
Determine the point of view or purpose of the texts and the
authors’ use of rhetoric to convey their individual messages.
Yu
Washington
Point of View
First Person: I
Third Person: They
Purpose
Don’t romanticize—Lin won’t
end racism but “may be
revolutionizing our culture.”
Celebrate: Lin smashes
stereotypes and is playing for
a “whole culture”
Use of
rhetoric
Uses his own words.
Uses stronger language:
ugliness, offensive, antiChinese slur, menacing,
bucktoothed, pidginspeaking, “ching-chong”
accents, nerdy, racist taunts
Quotes extensively.
Uses milder language: weak,
servile, a few hints of racism,
Asian issues, being
overlooked, bust their butt,
underestimated, deceptively
athletic, stereotypes, cruelly
racist remark
Tone
Personal involvement and
concern
Mostly objective presentation
44
Possible Response With Evidence
http://blacksportsonline.com/home/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Yellow-mamba.jpg
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Jeremy Lin
Ben and Jerry Debuts
‘Taste the Lin-Sanity’
MSG airs Jeremy Lin
fortune cookie sign
http://www.iamagm.com/sites/default/files/msg-lin-fortune.jpg?1329407163
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http://www.whatsonxiamen.com/wine_images/27c01b
85ed1a28b536a30aa1_Taste_the_LinSanity_1.jpg
“The Jeremy Lin Effect won’t end
racism” but it will make America
more awake.
Conscious…
Aware…
47
http://disgrasian.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/new-york-post-amasian.jpg
http://www.whbqt.info/UserFiles/image/chink-in-armor.jpg
Read the World
Newspapers
Magazines
http://www.hooverlibrary.org/images/ref_magazines_lg.jpg
http://cloud.frontpagemag.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/nyt.jpg
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Do-It-Yourself
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“A Quilt of a Country” Anna Quindlen
1.Tolerance is the word used most often when this kind of coexistence
succeeds, but tolerance is a vanilla-pudding word, standing for little
more than the allowance of letting others live unremarked and
unmolested. 2. Pride seems excessive, given the American willingness to
endlessly complain about them, them being whoever is new, different,
unknown or currently under suspicion. 3. But patriotism is partly taking
pride in this unlikely ability to throw all of us together in a country that
across its length and breadth is as different as a dozen countries, and still
be able to call it by one name. 4. When photographs of the faces of all
those who died in the World Trade Center destruction are assembled in
one place, it will be possible to trace in the skin color, the shape of the
eyes and the noses, the texture of the hair, a map of the world. 5. These
are the representatives of a mongrel nation that somehow, at times like
this, has one spirit. 6. Like many improbable ideas, when it actually
works, it's a wonder.
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Writing Vocabulary Prompts
Prepare prompts that will scaffold students to:
O Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and
multiple-meaning words by using context clues,
analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting
reference materials, as appropriate.
O Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and
nuances in word meanings.
O Acquire and use accurately a range of general
academic and domain-specific words and phrases
sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening
at the college level; demonstrate when encountering
an unknown term important to comprehension
From Common Core Language Anchor Standards #4, #5, and #6
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Writing Summary Prompts
Prepare prompts that will scaffold students to:
O Restate in their own words what the text
says explicitly.
O Make logical inferences.
O Cite specific textual evidence to support
conclusions drawn from the text.
O Determine central ideas.
O Summarize the key supporting details
and ideas.
From Common Core Reading Anchor Standards #1 and #2
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Writing Craft Prompts
Prepare prompts that will scaffold students to:
O Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas
develop and interact over the course of a text.
O Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a
text, including determining technical, connotative,
and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific
word choices shape meaning or tone.
O Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific
sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text
(e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to
each other and the whole.
O Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the
content and style of a text.
From Common Core Reading Anchor Standards #3, #4, #5, and #6
53
The snakes
weigh
up to 250
pounds
and slither
at a
rate of 20
miles
per month ...

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