Using a driving simulator to identify older drivers at inflated risk of motor vehicle crashes Professor: Liu Student: Ruby Motive & Purpose • MotiveThere is no published research documenting the correlation between simulators and crashes among older adults. • PurposeTo develop appropriate evaluation methods to identify older drivers at high risk of crash and to provide as early as possible. References 1.About 20% of the population in developed nations are over 60 years old, but one out of three persons will over 60 years old by 2050 (United Nations, 1999). 2.It has been discovered that age-related decrease in cognitive, perceptual, and physical abilities are associated with an increased accident risk (Brayne et al., 2000). References 3.The attributes associated with vehicle crashes include: • Decrease in memory and visual attention. • Deficit in visual perceptual skills. • Impairment in visual acuity. • Difficulty in judging and responding to traffic flow. (Bedard, Molloy, & Lever, 1998; Cooper, Tall, Tukko, & Beatties, 1993; Wallace, 1997; Owsley et al.,1998; Duchek, Hunt, Ball,Buckles, & Morris, 1998) Methods • Participants and procedure 1. 129 drivers and over 60 years old. 29F, 100M 2. No visual sickness such as cataract and glaucoma. 3. 30min interviews. Including crash history and other information from each participant. 4. 45min simulate driving session. Methods • Driving simulator 1. PC-based STISIM Driving Simulator • Driving tasks Methods Methods Results • Population statistics and driving information 1. The main medical conditions: a. high blood pressure (38%) b. visual problem (36%) c. arthritis (26%) d. hearing problem (25%) e. heart diseases (15%) f. diabetes(10%). Results 2. All participants are retired and they drive per week from 1 to 35h. 3. Around 12% of the participants’ job required driving regularly before retirement. 4. 9% of participants have soft dizziness during the simulated driving. Results Reliability analysis: • There is significant negative correlation between each rule and the age of participants. Results • Participants’ performance in driving tasks involving Working Memory, Decision and Judgment, and Speed Compliance was found a negatively associated with the occurrence of a crash. Discussion 1. The negative correlation between individual assessment score and age provided evidence. 2. The inability to make rapid decision and judgment was found highly significant in older drivers. Discussion 3. The logistic regression analysis showed that working memory, ability to make rapid decisions, judgment under time pressure, and confidence in driving at high speed were associated with the crash event.