Unit 02 - LO3

Report
Information Systems
LO3 – Know the features and functions of information systems
LO1
Scenario
Criteria
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Assessment
P1 – Explain how organisations use Information
P2 – Discuss the Characteristics of Good Information
M1 – Assess the improvements which can be made to an identified organisation’s Business
Information Systems
P3 - Explain the issues related to the use of information
D1 – Compare Legal, Ethical and Operational issues that may affect organisations.
P4 – Describe the features and functions of Information Systems
P5 – Identify the information systems used in a specified organisation
M2 – Illustrate the input and output if Information within a specified functional areas of an
organisation
D2 – Analyse the legal and ethical implications of the illustrated inputs and outputs.
P6 – Select Information to support a business decision-making process
P7 – Use IT tools to produce management information.
M3 – Explain the value of a management information system.
LO1
Scenario
Criteria
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Assessment
P4 - Evidence could be presented in the form of a report or presentation and
learners must describe the generic features and functions of information systems
including reference to specific types of systems that could be used.
P5 - Evidence could be made in the form of a report or presentation. A business
scenario must be provided to the learner to enable them to identify potential
information systems used. The learner must clearly identify the business and
information processes, and describe the information system, its purpose and how
it works.
M2 - Evidence of at least a minimum of two DFDs must be provided to illustrate
two complete processes within a specified functional area of the organisation.
Free software from the internet for DFDs are available for download onto the
learners own computer to draw out the DFDs, hand drawn alternatives are also
acceptable and could be scanned into a report or presentation. The learner must
check each process to ensure that they have used the industry recognised
symbols. The learner must ensure they check and correct any errors.
D2 - This is an extension of the work evidenced in M2. Learners must analyse the
legal and ethical implications on the data flows that they have identified in their
diagrams. Their diagrams could be annotated to identify these and/or a separate
detailed report used.
LO1
Scenario
Criteria
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Assessment
Know the features and functions of information systems
 The tutor should deliver information relating to all the features of information
systems. Tutors should compare and contrast the features and functions with
the learner as part of a group discussion to identify differences in requirements
for information system. Using an example of an organisation and departments
having to merge for example Sales moving into Marketing rather than separate
departments would give opportunities for the tutor to encourage discussion on
what the IT administration would need to consider once the department has
merged. Learners could be in groups with different companies with merging
departments or a department disappearing. How will the company’s
information systems function?
 The tutor should select an organisation to explore with the learners, taking
into account the company’s systems. The tutor needs to describe the system
and how it works, giving examples of the systems using Data Flow Diagrams to
illustrate the input and output of information. Using free software such as
“SmartDraw” the DFD can easily be created with industry recognised symbols
for the learner to be familiar with. Splitting the learners into groups and letting
them work on a DFD of a certain procedure for example, the student enrolment
process. Later, take into account the legal implications relating to the storage
and flow of the learners information as discussed within the group.
LO1
Scenario
Criteria
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Assessment
Information comes in many different forms with a variety of data types, and how that data
is transferred into information depends on the nature and technical probity of the
hardware and software involved. Systems such as Sims and Epos all transfer the raw data
into manageable chunks, and that information is then disseminated to the individuals who
will use that information or take the raw data and use it themselves.
For instance, a sale goes through the checkout in a Tesco’s store. The Epos system then
uses that bar code information as it passes through the counter to different departments,
all who use the information for a different purpose and all with an different analysis and
end goal in mind.
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Warehousing takes the information and uses it against stock control to measure if
there is enough stock left.
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Marketing take the sale and decide if there is room for marketing, promotions,
discounting etc.
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Stores take the information to put a replacement on the shelf.
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Accounts take the sale and place the money into the bank.
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HR take the sale and measure it against the amount of staff there is on the floor in
case there is too much staff and not cost effective.
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And then there is R&D, Management, Promotions and others in the line who will use
the same information for other purposes.
With a school this information will cross the hands of double this amount of staff before
it is finally discarded or updated.
LO1
Scenario
Criteria
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Assessment
The features of that one sale and the number of handlers would seem like a huge
burden but this is how data is broken down within businesses.
Date Features:

Data – the raw file with the different sections, depending on the days, separated
into data fields and data types. How this is input and what it contains can have an
impact on how it is analysed and interpreted and finally used.

People – The different job titles of people will dictate what kind of information is
used and processed. Marketing will likely needs sales information but not bar code
numbers, store people will not need calorie counts but will require weight and
storage information.
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Hardware – the types of machine for storage, processing and management of
information can have an impact of the type of information gathered and how it is
manipulated. Hotmail has almost unlimited storage and can therefor not restrict
down the information and collected whereas a local garage mechanic might just
store the customers car details, address and MOT status for their customers.

Software – The type of software for editing and manipulating information can
restrict the kind of information and the features of that information. Access is
good, good enough for a small business but cannot manage information like Sims
can, it cannot cross thread, it cannot share beyond Microsoft products.
LO1
Scenario
Criteria
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Assessment
Communication flows – How the company transfers the information from
one department to the other in terms of Data protection needs, in terms
of speed, in terms of post processing can have an impact on the features
of the data that can be transferred. In a company the warehousing does
not need to know who bought that can of beans so the data needs to be
filtered, but they cannot send their information after filtering back to
Human resources without there being bits missing that might be
necessary, so Human Resources might need the information from sales
instead. Each time something gets lost in the flow the company needs to
step back to a more raw version of the information.
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Task 1 – P4.1 – With reference to a specific type of information
processing system (Epos, Sims, JStore, Alice, Api, Netloan, Janet),
describe the features of Data and how it is used by companies.
Data
Software
People
Hardware
Communication flows
LO1
Scenario
Criteria
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Assessment
How the information is collected and how the information is processed once
it has been collected can determine who gets what information and how
much use they can make of the information. The people who are
responsible for collecting the data rarely have anything to do with its use
afterwards.
 Data Input – How the information is collected. Questionnaires and sales
are just a few of the tools, there is electronic readers (bar code scanners),
PDA’s (like the postman with the signature PDA), traffic and speed
cameras, card readers (turnstiles and swiping), Forms, Registers,
Census’s etc. All these have their purposes and all of them have their
limitations on the amount and type of information that is gathered.
 Data Storage – Location is everything but the location of public and
private information needs to be a consideration ion the type and amount
of information that is allowed. Students can see a certain amount of
information on the school network but there are things they cannot see
so these are stored in a separate location, either a split network drive or a
different server. Whatever is more secure. Security and storage can limit
the amount of information. Think of the consideration of the DPA and the
need for measures.
LO1
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Scenario
Criteria
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Assessment
Processing of Data – What can be gained from the processing of data depends on
how the data is linked, whether there is a common thread, whether the information
has similarities. A flat database is a table with one set of information only, not
linked to other information. Relational databases are cross linked, look at
information from other files and come back with comparative results.
Reporting of Data – How the data is feed back to the other users can have an
impact on the functions of the information. Show a chart of company progress and
increased profit and things look rosy, show that this is down from last year’s
figures by comparing it and things are not so rosy. Producing single form reports
versus linked reports, each serves its purpose and each is directed at a target
audience that is best suited for the informational needs.
Analysis of Data – All companies will analyse data to some point, there are tools
within any good database program to make this easier. Information that is
processed on a open system and sent to a department elsewhere will need a
different range of informational needs reviewed. Think of a sales department
reviewing sales information, beans sell well on a Sunday for Monday customers,
this is linked and analysed against bread sales. Using this information, if there is a
consistent pattern, will allow shops to stock up on beans on a Friday and Bread on
Saturday. The same is true for any piece of information, analysis of information
leads to increased sales and productivity.
LO1
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Assessment
Closed and Open Systems – A system that interfaces and interacts with
additional instructions and data to alter and improve is called an open
system. A database that adds additional categories, merges with new
information and expands with new ideas are readily absorbed, allowing
for improvements and new ideas. Because of this they can adapt more
quickly to changes in the users demands in which they operate. Doing so
gives the system a stronger probability for survival.
Examples of open systems: Business organisation, Hospital systems,
College or University systems like Sims and Janet.
Alternatively, a closed system is more prone to resist incorporating new
ideas, that can be deemed unnecessary to its purpose but risks growing
defunct. By not adopting, a closed system may cease to properly serve
the users when something better comes along.
Task 2 – P4.2 – With reference to a specific type of information
processing system (Epos, Sims, JStore, Alice, Api, Netloan, Janet), describe
the functions of Data and how it is used by companies.
Data Input
Reporting of Data
Data Storage
Analysis of Data
Processing of Data
Closed and Open Systems
LO1
Scenario
Criteria
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Assessment
Within one of your companies, when the company decides to downsize or
change the structure of the company by merging departments, the access
to both sets of information changes the rules. For instance sales might
merge with marketing, distribution with warehousing, human resources
with administration. This can either be through the same staff doing both
jobs or two members of staff working in the same department.
With this merge the IT administration would need to consider certain
difficulties once the department has merged including:
 Legal status of staff with access to private information
 The IT problems of merging systems.
 Learning new systems or replacing old ones.
 Training, standardising and Protocols
Task 3 – P4.3 – State and explain the information sharing needs of two
merging department in terms of legal access to information, merging of
databases, and how will the company’s information systems would need to
function?
LO1
Scenario
Criteria
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Assessment
Data flow diagram(DFD) is a diagram of the movement of data
between external entities and the processes and data stores within
a system
 May look similar to a flow chart
 Shows that there is a flow of data between the two components
(one-way or a two-way flow)
 Component sending data can send multiple sets of data along
several connections
 In fact, a DFD node can be a component that never ends
Rules
 In DFDs, all arrows must be labelled
 The information flow continuity, that is all the input and the
output to each refinement, must maintain the same in order to
be able to produce a consistent system.
LO1
Scenario
Criteria
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Assessment
Task 1 – P4.1 – With reference to a specific type of information processing system (Epos, Sims, JStore,
Alice, Api, Netloan, Janet), describe the features of Data and how it is used by companies.
Task 2 – P4.2 – With reference to a specific type of information processing system (Epos, Sims, JStore,
Alice, Api, Netloan, Janet), describe the functions of Data and how it is used by companies.
Task 3 – P4.3 – State and explain the information sharing needs of two merging department in terms of
legal access to information, merging of databases, and how will the company’s information systems
would need to function?
Task 4 – P5.1 – Explain and identify a range of information systems used within your selected business.
Task 5 – P5.2 – Explain and identify a range of information needs within your business for the three tiers
of decision makers.
Task 6 – P5.3 – Explain what a Data Flow Diagrams (DFD) are
Task 7 – M2.1 - Present Data Flow Diagrams (DFD) for 2 of the following scenarios, showing how your
business’s information system works and information flows through the different areas of the business
Task 8 – P5.3 – Based on a specific information system used within your selected business, produce a
report that includes and references the 3 levels of the DFD, when outlining the following areas:
Task 9 - D2.1 – Analyse the legal implications that need to be considered when dealing with
information/data within your businesses system (inputs/outputs)
Task 10 - D2.2 - Analyse the ethical implications that need to be considered when dealing with
information/data within your businesses system (inputs/outputs)

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