Franklyn Talk BCVA2014vMB - Edinburgh Research Explorer

Report
Molecular epidemiology of bovine
tuberculosis in Cameroon
Franklyn Nkongho
Outline
•
•
•
•
Background
Design
Results
Concluding remarks
Background
• WT funded project on the epidemiology
of bTB in Cameroon
– Describe the basic epidemiology
– Estimate the performance of available
diagnostic tests
– Estimate the prevalence of bTB
– Identify the strains circulating
– Explore co-infection with liver fluke,
paraTB, BVD
– Estimate human zoonotic TB risk and
strains
Mycobacterium bovis
• Poorly reported in Africa
• Potential zoonotic PH problem
– Infected raw milk or meat
– Risk to herdsmen/slaughtermen
• High TB burden linked to HIV
– Zoonotic component poorly understood
• Potential for cattle production loss
• Control based on meat inspection
Design
• Three study components
M
G
N
B
– Convenience sample of 4 abattoirs
(Bamenda, Ngaoundere, Garoua,
Maroua)
– Population based cross sectional
study in 2 areas
– Human DTC based study in NW
Region
• Focus of talk is on the abattoir
study
Sampling Design
Collection of blood
sample for
serological tests
Bamenda TB Lab
Sample Processing
GRINDING
PASTE MADE
Hain MTBC/CM/AS kits
Spoligotyping/MIRU-VNTR
(Genoscreen)
Automated MGIT
BACTEC 960
SYSTEM
LJ Pyruvate
LJ Glycerol
WGS (ArkGenomics)
Buea Lab
Results abattoir
Bamenda
Ngaoundere
Garoua
Maroua
No. sampled 1129
935
160
122
No. with TB
like lesions
45
106
38
18
Prev lesions
4.0%
11.3%
23.8%
14.8%
% lesions
with M bovis
68.9%
67.9%
89.5%
88.8%
Prev M bovis 2.7%
7.7%
21.3%
13.1%
Prev
bovigam
6.8%
-
-
5.6%
Results abattoir – proxy age
Abattoir lesions and M bovis
Lesion
M bovis
pos
neg
pos
150
51
201
neg
2
177
179
152
228
380
All observed
Random sample
NB. 380 animals had LN culture results
Bovigam
M bovis
pos
neg
pos
43
15
58
neg
55
200
255
98
215
313
NB. 67 had no bovigam results (mainly Garoua + Maroua)
Abattoir results – other Mycobacteria
Abattoir
BAMENDA
NGAOUNDERE
GAROUA
MAROUA
M tuberculosis
1
0
0
0
M gordonae
2
0
0
0
M phlei
9
1
0
0
M fortuitum
2
1
1
0
M mucogenicum
0
1
0
0
M scrofulaecum
1
0
1
0
M species
7
4
1
1
Only 2 animals recorded mixed infections of M bovis
and M fortuitum and an untyped Mycobacterium
species
Results where were zoonotic cases
3 human cases or ~2% of human TB
is zoonotic in the NW Region
Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex
Species and Lineages
M. tuberculosis
M. canetti
M. africanum
M. bovis sub
species
Spoligotyping
SB1026
SB0944
SB0953
Spoligotyping
SB0944
SB0953
SB1026
Spoligotyping
SB0953
SB0953
SB1026
SB0953
SB0953
SB0953
SB0944
SB0953
SB0953
SB0953
SB0953
SB0953
SB0953
SB0944
SB0953
SB0953
SB0953
SB0953
SB0944
SB0953
SB0953
SB0953
Spoligotyping
SB1026
SB0953
SB0944
Boyo
Bui
Menchum
Mezam
Momo
Donga Mantung
Molecular work ongoing
• Data analysis still on going
• Majority of spoligotype and MIRU-VNTR data still
to come
• WGS underway
Concluding remarks
• Relatively high prevalence of bTB
• Range of other Mycobacteria in cattle
– M tb and several NTMs
• 3 human M bovis cases (yet to be typed)
– Represents potential significant human burden
• Complex epidemiological situation with transmission in
both directions
• Currently 3 spoligotypes in NWR
– More diversity by MIRU-VNTR
– Appear to be widely dispersed
• Reinforce meat inspection and condemnation of infected
carcasses
• Public sensitization particularly around milk consumption
• BUT DATA ANALYSIS STILL ON GOING
Questions?
Partners
• UoEdinburgh, UK
–
–
–
–
Mark Bronsvoort (PI)
Rob Kelly (RA/PhD)
Ian Handel
Adrian Muwonge
• IRAD, Cameroon
– Vincent Tanya (CoPI)
• UoBuea, Cameroon
• GIZ/TBRL, Cameroon
– Melissa Sander
• UoGlasgow, UK
– Roman Biek
• UoLiverpool, UK
– Kenton Morgan
– Diana Williams
• MINEPIA, Cameroon
– Walters Andu
– Lucy Ndip (CoPI)
• UoNgoundere, Cameroon
– Franklyn Nkongho (PhD)
• Swiss TPH
– Jakob Zinstaag (CoPI)
• LRVZ de Farcha, Chad
– Richard Ngondolo
- Dr Victor Ngwa
- Jean Marc Babningom

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