Section Two Notes Spain began to feel more and more threatened by the United States. People known as filibusters, such as Philip Nolan, began entering Texas. Many were mustang traders, looking to round up wild horses, while others simply wished to incite revolution within Texas. Philip Nolan began coming to Texas in 1791 as a mustang trader, and entered three times with permission. Soon, the Spanish became suspicious of him and thought that he was working as a spy for U.S. General James Wilkinson. So in the early 1800’s when he entered into Texas with 20 men without permission, the Spanish tried to arrest him. Nolan resisted arrest and was killed. Whether or not he was actually a spy, this event increased Spain’s fears of U.S. expansion. Many people had differing opinions about what should happen to Texas. Most were from the United States, and that influenced their opinions. Differing opinions: 1. Some wanted to free Texas from Spain. 2. Others wanted to free all of Mexico from Spanish rule. 3. Some filibusters wanted Texas to be part of the United States. 4. A small amount wanted Texas to be its own country. With the U.S. Revolution as an inspiration, many people in Mexico began to push for independence from Spain. Miguel Hidalgo y Castillo, a priest in Dolores, Mexico, was the first to call for war. “Will you not defend your religion and your rights as true patriots? Death to bad government!” He led an army of 50,000 and marched across Mexico. He was executed for these acts of treason. After Father Hidalgo’s death, other people led the fight for Mexican Independence. Men like Augustus William Magee, a U.S. citizen, and Jose Gutiérrez de Lara, a Spanish citizen, wanted to continue Father Hidalg0’s rebellion against Spanish rule by invading Texas. They joined forces to create the Republican Army of the North. They took Nacogdoches and later the presidio at La Bahía from Spanish forces. On April 6, 1813, Gutiérrez de Lara issued a document declaring Texas Independence, but their success did not last long. Many soldiers became unhappy with Gutiérrez and he was forced from power. Others continued to fight along the Texas coast, helped by United States citizens and unhappy citizens of Spanish Mexico and Texas. The Battle of Medina was fought on August 18, 1813 along the Medina River south of San Antonio. The Republican Army of the North, led by Gutiérrez and Magee were up against the Spanish royal army. The battle was short but it is known as Texas’ bloodiest military engagement within the state borders. The Republican Army lost miserably, with only 100 of the 1400 soldiers surviving the battle, while the royalists lost only 55 men. Regardless of the outcome, the battle is important because it inspired others to participate in the revolution against Spain. Not only was Spain having to worry about possible U.S. expansion and a war for independence, pirates were attacking Spanish ships at this time along the Texas Gulf Coast. Many pirates claimed that they were helping Mexico gain their independence, like French pirate Jean Lafitte. Lafitte and his men attacked many Spanish ships near Galveston Island in the name of the Revolution, but in all likelihood, Lafitte was simply interested in capturing Spanish treasure. Dr. James Long was probably the most famous filibuster. An American citizen from Mississippi, Long was unhappy about the Adams-Onís Treaty, and wanted Texas to be either independent or part of the U.S. After fighting Spanish forces throughout Texas, Long declared Texas independent, but was captured and soon after shot and killed while awaiting trial. This ended the filibuster period in Texas for some many years. His wife, Jane Long, later settled in Texas on her own. While others were fighting to free Texas and failing, others continued to fight for Mexico’s independence from Spain. José María Morelos y Pavón led this revolution until he was executed. In 1820, Spain began having trouble at home in Europe, and this weakened their stance in Mexico. Mexico won its independence in 1821 and became a republic in 1822. Causes: 1. Large social and economic divisions between the rich and poor in New Spain 2. Political corruption in Spain 3. Other revolutions as inspiration, such as the American and French Revolutions 4. Father Hidalgo’s Cry of Dolores Effects: 1. Mexico became a republic 2. Many people die during the revolution and lots of money is lost 3. Political instability in Mexico 4. The new Mexican government attempts to increase the Texas population with immigrants from Europe and the United States After the Mexicans won their Independence from Spain Ranching continued to grow in Texas, though most farmers were poor and had to withstand many obstacles. Many had to deal with Native American attacks and uncomfortable living conditions. Many lived in jacales, small oneroom huts made of sticks and mud. The Mexican government decided to keep the mission system in Texas, but with the goal of secularization. To secularize means to move from religious to civil control. Instead of being used to convert Native Americans to Christianity, the missions were either sold or used to house military units.