POETRY REVIEW “Sonnet 73”by William Shakespeare “A Litany in Time of Plague” by Thomas Nashe “Weep You No More Sad Fountains” by Anonymous Arodis Marzo Syed Hussain Daniel Valladeros Theme: Mortality • The common theme shared between every sonnet is mortality. Every poem tells the experience of death, and the subject of being exposed to death is directly effected through every person within the intended audience. Mortality “Sonnet 73” By: William Shakespeare Pg. 14 Mortality That time of year thou mayst in me behold When yellow leaves, or none, or few, do hang Upon those boughs which shake against the cold, Bare ruined choirs, where late the sweet birds sang. In me thou see'st the twilight of such day As after sunset fadeth in the west; Which by and by black night doth take away, Death's second self, that seals up all in rest. In me thou see'st the glowing of such fire, That on the ashes of his youth doth lie, As the death-bed, whereon it must expire, Consumed with that which it was nourish'd by. This thou perceiv'st, which makes thy love more strong, To love that well, which thou must leave ere long. Brief Summary Mortality The poem immediately begins with Shakespeare mourning his imminent death. The poet associates his death through aging, describing his end of days as a elderly man through nature. He ends it with a message to the audience to live fully with as much love and joy as one possibly can. Now appreciating the means of happiness as he should’ve, appointing to the time in his youth filled with regret. Mortality Speaker And Subject The poem is appointed towards his death. Shakespeare is not with death, nor does he comes to terms with it. He uses a mix of analogies to further amplify the negativity brought on with his death. He doesn't utilize these tools to remember the bright days he lived but we feel his days where his the sun gradually sets, bit the bitter cold days where his head rests. At the finishing couplets he sends a message to the people to live fulfilled with joy, yet still filled with regret himself. Structure The rhyme scheme in the sonnet is Shakespearean with an ABAB format. Shakespeare utilizes a repetition of nature in comparison to him aging into death. In the first couplet he mentions autumn- a cold season in which lively leaves are absent on the tree branch's. In the fourth couplet he refers to his age with the duratfire losing it’s intensifying heat into ashes.ion of sunlight, and the third couplet with Style Mortality Metaphors are extremely vivid throughout the sonnet comparing natural elements to Shakespeare's imminent death. This is especially evident when he displays autumn as a comparison to his final days “ when yellow leaves, or none, or few do hang.” All the same when the light of day is employed as “ after sunset fadeth in the west” comparing the beginning of a sunset to the ending of his life. The metaphors all cause the same effect, amplifying the darkness that awaits Shakespeare at the end of light signifying his bitter death. The last couplet compares his death with an image of fire. When Shakespeare mentions “ in me thou see’st the glowing of such fire, that on the ashes of his youth doth lie,” he creates the image of a fire beginning with just enough spark to spread. Then, the flames begin to extinguish and the heat reduces, and then a pile of ash is left. Ash, no heat, and no light just dust. Shakespeare utilizes the lifespan of the flames in comparison with his linked to near by death. Mortality Tone • There is a melancholic tone to his life deteriorating in front of him and while he as lived some days of pure joy I his youth, he remains focused on his death. Describing it with a more pessimistic point of view. Then, towards the end he employs a tone of regret which explains why he lives his dying days with pure negativity. He finishes with an instruction directed towards his audience to live and appreciates life's light, and joy, and love better than he. Mortality "A Litany in time of Plague" By: Thomas Nashe Pg. 14 Mortality Adieu, farewell, earth’s bliss; This world uncertain is; Fond are life’s lustful joys; Death proves them all but toys; None from his darts can fly; I am sick, I must die. Lord, have mercy on us! Beauty is but a flower Which wrinkles will devour; Brightness falls from the air; Queens have died young and fair; Dust hath closed Helen’s eye. I am sick, I must die. Lord, have mercy on us! Rich men, trust not in wealth, Gold cannot buy you health; Physic himself must fade. All things to end are made, The plague full swift goes by; I am sick, I must die. Lord, have mercy on us! Strength stoops unto the grave, Worms feed on Hector brave; Swords may not fight with fate, Earth still holds open her gate. “Come, come!” the bells do cry. I am sick, I must die. Lord, have mercy on us! Mortality Summary: The poem is about a preacher during the Black Death who has no idea of what is happening, all he knows is that anyone who gets sick dies, and no one was exempt from getting sick Ex: "Rich men, trust not in wealth, Gold cannot buy you health" Speaker: A fictional preacher wanting to warn people of impending doom. Subject: Everyone Structure: The structure of the stanzas are in AABBCCD and has a repetition of the line: "I am sick, I must die," and "Lord, have mercy on us!" throughout the three stanzas. Mortality Mortality "A Litany in time of Plague" By: Thomas Nashe Pg. 14 Weep you no more, sad fountains; What need you flow so fast? Look how the snowy mountains Heaven’s sun doth gently waste But my sun’s heavenly eyes View not your weeping, That now lies sleeping Softly, now softly lies Sleeping. Mortality Sleep is a reconciling, A rest that peace begets; Doth not the sun rise smiling When fair at even he sets? Rest you then, rest, sad eyes, Melt not in weeping, While she lies sleeping, Softly, now softly lies Sleeping Brief Summary of Poem Mortality The main focus of this poem is to comfort the intended audience’s sorrow over an individual who “now softly lies sleeping.” The first stanza opens with a question, asking why are you crying and asking for their sorrow towards a deceased character to end. Though she may be gone, she will be remembered. The first two lines from the second stanza represent that death is a peaceful eternal slumber. “Sleep is a reconciling, a rest that peace begets” appear to link sleep and death. The word reconciling, in this case, could mean coming into terms with death. The poem in general has a comforting feel, even though it deals with the topic of death of an important individual. Mortality Structure The last lines of the first and second stanza conclude with “Softly, now softly lies sleeping.” -This emphasizes that sleeping and death are connected in this case, as the person is now sleeping eternally in peace. The rhyme scheme of the song appear to be in the ABABCDDC format which is common in traditional Elizabethan songs. This reveals that this could be a song from the Queen Elizabeth I’s era. Upon further research, a person can suggest that this song is referring to the event of Queen Elizabeth’s death. Speaker and Subject The subject is towards a person who is no deceased and now sleeping (dead). The speaker is a sad person who is in sorrow and the poem is asking them to stop weeping and that she is now in a better place. The speaker’s point of view towards the situation is sorrowful due to a person who had passed away. Mortality Style Tone • Both “Weep you no more, sad fountains;” and “Look how the snowy mountains Heaven’s sun doth gently waste” are metaphors which signify the sorrow the reader may be experiencing. Fountains resemble a great sum of water, meaning that a person is in terrible sadness and is weeping hard. The tone of the song is sorrowful yet peaceful at the same time. The people are crying hard and are in deep sadness as a beloved person has passed away. The poem is asking the question of why a person is crying while she lays peacefully asleep and reveals that the sorrow should come to an end. This shares a comforting and calm emotion as the person who is now dead is now in everlasting peace and more or less, happy. “Weep you no more, sad fountains; What need you flow so fast?” By comforting death, the poet is trying to end the sorrow of people over the death of someone important. • Personification can also be found in this song as the fountains represents an individual in deep sorrow. “What need you flow so fast?” gives away that the person is very upset. Personification is used in this case as the fountains are compared to humans.