Manifest Destiny & Westward Expansion Miss Springborn Team 6- Social Studies What is Manifest Destiny ? • Manifest Destiny: The belief that the United States should “expand ocean to ocean.” Manifest Destiny • “The American claim is by the right of our manifest destiny to overspread and possess the whole of the continent…” - John O’Sullivan WHY? • People living in our country thought that we were a special nation and therefore destined to spread across the continent from sea to sea BrainPOP | Social Studies | Learn about Westward Expansion Our First Expansion: The Louisiana Purchase Louisiana PurchaseOctober 20th 1803 • Purchased from Napoleon and • • • France by President Thomas Jefferson Napoleon needed money to fight wars in Europe Why would be interested in such a deal?- United States was scared France would not let us use the port city of New Orleans. So…. President Jefferson offers to buy the land from France. Cost of the Louisiana Purchase • It cost $15 million and doubles the size of the United States. • In 1804 the cost was $0.03 a square mile • In 2008, the Equivalent cost was about $2.57 per square mile. Was this a Good Deal for the United States??? – Yes it was a GREAT deal! We gained lots of new land at a really cheap price. We also gained control of the Mississippi River and the Port of New Orleans • Lewis and Clark Brainpop Florida • Many People wanted • to settle in this area, but it was owned by Spain. Additionally there many Seminole Indians in this area who were hostile. Florida • In April 1818, General Andrew Jackson invaded Florida • This was known as the first Seminole War • Jackson’s actions convinced Spanish leaders to settle the border dispute. We told them to govern the territory of Florida or Get out of our way. We also offered to pay $5 million dollars in settlements. • So Spain agreed to give the U.S. Florida with the signing of the Adam-Onis Treaty of 1819. Texas War for Independence • Many Americans had moved into the western territory known as Texas and owned by the newly independent country of Mexico. Mexicans had overthrown the Spanish and gained independence. American settler, Moses Austin, was given a large amount of land to start a colony under Mexican rule. Austin and his settlers had to agree to become Mexican citizens and join the Catholic Church to stay Texas Continued… • Tensions will rise when thousands of new settlers arrive to the now Stephen Austin’s colony. By 1830 there were over 25,000 American colonists living there. These new settlers did not want to live under Mexican rule. War will break out. Texas: • When did war break out?- Settlers will rebel lead by William Travis and Stephen Austin. Mexican leader General Antonio Lopez De Santa Anna refused to negotiate with the Texas settlers. Santa Anna and his troops will march on the Texans in 1836. They will attack Americans held up in the old Spanish mission known as The Alamo. • Important People to know… • Stephen Austin, leader of settlers from America. • William Travis, Jim Bowie, Davey Crocket- all fought on Texas’s side at the Battle the Alamo where 1,800 Mexican troops attacked 189. Texas troops over 12 days. Texans were outnumbered 10 to 1. Texas… • “Remember the Alamo” became rallying cry of war for the rest of the Texas Settlers • Texans will win their own independence under the command of Sam Houston. He will be elected the first president of the Lone Star Republic in 1836. It will be a few years before Texas become part of the United States. “Remember the Alamo” became rallying cry of war. The Oregon Trail The United States gains the territory of Oregon. We were in a battle over it with Russia, Spain, and Great Britain. Spain and Russia will drop their claims and the United States and Great Britain will agree to a “peaceful occupation” of the territory. We will divide the line between the 54’ 40 parallel of latitude. The Oregon Trail • Thousands of settlers will want to head west to this new territory and will travel along the Oregon Trail to get there. • This Path that stretched over _2,000 miles west and through the Rocky Mountains. A trip lasted an average of 6 months. Travelers went from dawn till dusk The Oregon Trail Thousands of Americans made the journey. Americans living in Oregon wanted to become a state. Expansionists wanted to control all of the land north until the 54th parallel. Settlers used the slogan “_Fifty-Four Forty or Fight ” and “All of Oregon or None!” Eventually war was avoided when President Polk got a peaceful solution with The treaty between the US and Great Britain signed, settling at the 49th parallel. Mexican War: Most Americans will support the United States going to war with Mexico over the territory of Texas. Congress voted to annex Texas in 1845. Texas will become the 28th state added to the United States. Of course Mexico will not accept this and tensions between the US and Mexico will rise. Mexican War: When? - President Polk declares war in May 1846 when Mexicans fired upon US troops stations on the Rio Grande border. Americans were technically on Mexican soil in disputed land when the attack happened but we used this info to help sway Congress to declare war. Mexican War: • Why? - “Mexico has shed _American blood on American soil” said President James Polk • American troops and Mexican troops clashed in many disputed areas near Mexican/Texas border. We invade areas of Mexico along the disputed border areas. Mexican War: • How does this War finally end? – We sign the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo . This gave the United States the Mexican Cession and later added the Gadsden Purchase. The Mexican Cession: Land given up by Mexico, included what is now California_, Nevada_, and Utah It also included most of Arizona and New Mexico and parts of Colorado, Texas and Wyoming. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo The Gadsden Purchase: In 1853, James Gadsden arranged the purchase of a strip of land from Mexico for $10 million dollars. Railroad builders needed this land just south of the Mexican Cession. We officially stretched from “Sea to Shining Sea”. Included Southern Parts of Arizona_ and_ New Mexico Brainpop for Mexican American War Gold Rush time… The California Gold Rush • In 1849, GOLD was • • discovered at a mill. Over 80,000 settlers came from all over to look for gold. These people were called forty-niners. Very few struck it rich. Gold Rush: • Very few struck it rich. The journey was very difficult. Almost all of the 49’s were men. People who made it rich were those that took advantage of the 49’s selling them supplies. Suppliers sold eggs for $6 a dozen and flour for $400 a barrel. Mining camps were very rough places and crime was very common. Actual posters from the Gold Rush… Places where gold was found… Gold Rush: • One man to make a fortune from the Gold Rush was Levi Strauss whose pants sold to miners became famous and known today as jeans. Many Chinese immigrants traveled to California. By 1852, over 20,000 had come to the US. They did not strike it rich but had a great deal of farming knowledge and settled. They did face discrimination from native Californians. Brainpop for the Gold Rush Tomorrow… • Bring colored pencils so we can complete the Manifest Destiny map!!