The Middle ages

Report
Outcome: Church Reform & The
Crusades
1.
Age of Faith
a.
b.
Between 500-1000 Europe was a dark age
Around the 900s, a new spirit invaded the church and brought about a spiritual
revival in the clergy
Problems in the Church
c.
i.
ii.
iii.
Village priests were married and had families ---> against Church rulings
Bishops sold positions in the Church, this was called simony
Kings used lay investiture
Reform
d.
Popes Leo IX and Gregory VII enforced Church laws against simony
and marriage
i.
ii. Papal Curia (pope’s advisers) acted as a court
1.
2.
iii.
Developed canon law on matters such as marriage, divorce, and
inheritance
Decided cases based on canon law
Church used taxes to pay for the sick and poor- most hospitals in Europe

Result: The Age of Faith helped push the Church closer to an empire rather
than being simply a religious order. Wars of conquest were inspired which
would give way to the violent holy wars known as the Crusades.
2.
The Crusades
a.
What is a crusade?
i.
A holy war involving the journey of thousands of Europeans to reclaim
the holy land of Jerusalem in the name of Christianity
ii.
In all, there were 8 or 9 Crusades (depending on your source)
Why crusade? Social, Economic, Spiritual, & Political reasons
b.
i.
Pope Urban II called for a holy war against Muslims controlling holy lands
ii.
Social: Opportunity to get knights to stop fighting each other and
fight a new foe. These knights threatened peace in Europe.
b.
Why crusade? Social, Economic, Spiritual, & Political reasons
iii.
Economic: Younger sons who did not stand to inherit father’s property
were looking for wealth and adventure
iv. Economic: Merchants supplied loans to finance the journey
b.
Why crusade? Social, Economic, Spiritual, & Political reasons
v.
Political: A chance for the pope to gain territory instead of Byzantine rival
vi.
Spiritual: Kill Muslims = ticket to heaven (Christian contradiction)
c.
When were the Crusades?
i. Starts in 1093 and lasts for nearly 300 years
3.
What happened:
a.
First and Second Crusade
i.
Urban’s call brought tremendous support for the Crusade
ii. Those who died on Crusade were assured a place in heaven
iii. “God wills it!” was the battle cry
iv. 3,000 mile journey from Europe to Jerusalem
v.
Eventually, 12,000 approached Jerusalem and besieged it for a month
vi.
On July 15, 1099, the Christians captured the city
a.
First and Second Crusade
vii. The Second Crusade was organized to recapture the city of Edessa
viii. In 1187, Europeans were shocked to learn that Saladin and the Muslims
had captured Jerusalem again
b.
The Third Crusade
i. Led by 3 of Europe’s most powerful monarchs
1.
2.
Philip II of France – went home
German Emperor Frederick – drowned on journey
b.
The Third Crusade
3. English King Richard the Lion-Hearted
a. Fought many battles against Saladin
b. Agreed to a truce with Saladin in 1192
i. Jerusalem stayed under Muslim control
ii. Saladin promised unarmed Christians could freely visit
the city’s holy places
c.
Other attempts
i. 4th Crusade failed to recapture Jerusalem
ii. In the 1200s, four more Crusades were also unsuccessful
iii. The Children’s Crusade
4.
Effects of the Crusades
Example of Church power
b. Trade was expanded between Europe and Southwest Asia
c. Failure of later crusades lessened the power of the pope
d. The Crusades weakened the power of the feudal nobility
e. Increased power of kings
a.
f.
Thousands of knights and other participants lost their lives
g.
Began a legacy of bitterness and hatred of Christians for the Muslims
h.
Persecution of Jews
Those who survived brought back culture to Europe
i.

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