Mentoring vs. Coaching vs. Precepting

Report
Mentoring vs. Coaching vs.
Precepting: What’s the Difference?
Veronica Vernon, PharmD, BCPS, BCACP
Clinical Pharmacy Specialist
IPA/CPI Annual Joint Convention
September 19, 2014
Disclosure
The speaker has no actual or potential
conflicts of interest in relation to
this presentation
Objectives
1.
Compare and contrast the purpose and
responsibilities associated with mentoring,
coaching, and precepting.
2.
Describe methods used to facilitate
conversations as a mentor, coach, or
preceptor.
3.
Identify communication strategies that can be
employed in challenging situations.
Famous Mentors in the Media
What do these mentors have in common?
http://www.cruxcatalyst.com/wp-content/uploads/yoda-luke.jpg
http://wandervogeldiary.files.wordpress.com/2014/05/mr-miyagi-the-karate-kid-630-75.jpg?w=655
Mentoring
A Mentor Is…
 “A
trusted counselor guiding the
professional development of an individual”
 “Knowledgeable
and competent
professionals who are one or more steps
ahead of a trainee”
Byyny RL. Pharos Alpha Omega Alpha Med Soc Winter 2012; 1-3
Rose GL, et al.. Acad Med 2005; 80(4): 344-348
The Origins of the Mentor
 The
Odyssey
 Athena
appeared as Mentor
to Telemachus
 Provided
encouragement
http://paesmem.stanford.edu
Smilor R. Entrepreneurship. Available at: http://www.entrepreneurship.org/en/resourcecenter/what-makes-yoda-so-good-how-to-be-an-effective-mentor.aspx
What are desirable qualities
in a mentor?
What actions should a
mentor take to ensure a
successful relationship with
the mentee?
Successful Actions of a Mentor
Listens
Provides
constructive
feedback
Develops a
personal
relationship
Supports and
challenges
the mentee
Designates
time for the
mentee
White SJ. Hosp Pharm 2011; 46(5):332-335.
Smilor R. Entrepreneurship. Available at: http://www.entrepreneurship.org/en/resourcecenter/what-makes-yoda-so-good-how-to-be-an-effective-mentor.aspx
Principles of Mentoring
Focus on the needs of the mentee
Demonstrate perseverance
Mentors must give of themselves
Align passion and work
Model character
Smith RE. ACCP Academy Leadership and Management Newsletter 2007; 1(1): 1-3
What NOT to Do
 Attempt
 Violate
to solve the mentee’s problems
confidentiality
 Force
opinions on a mentee
 Share
“war stories”
 Attempt
to create a “clone”
Smilor R. Entrepreneurship. Available at: http://www.entrepreneurship.org/en/resource-center/whatmakes-yoda-so-good-how-to-be-an-effective-mentor.aspx
Apprenticeship Model
I do it
I do it
and you
watch
You do
it and
I watch
You do
it
Maxwell JC. Mentoring 101.
Collaboration
Mentor
Mentee
Zachy LJ. The Mentor’s Guide.
How do you ensure success in
a mentoring relationship?
The Mentoring Equation
Johnson W. The HBR Blog Network. Available at: http://blogs.hbr.org/johnson/2011/10/get-the-mentoring-equation-rig.html
Creating a Positive Experience
 Set
expectations
 Frequency
of meetings
 Responsibilities of mentor and mentee
 Evaluate,
evaluate, evaluate
Coaching
A Coach Is…
“
Someone who helps another person reach
higher effectiveness by creating a dialogue
that leads to awareness and action.”
 An
individual who helps another come to
their own decision
 An
observer, a guide
Emerson B, et al. A Manager’s Guide to Coaching: Simple and Effective Ways to Get the Best Out of Your Employees
Atul G. The New Yorker. 2011 (October 3). Available at: http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2011/10/03/111003fa_fact_gawande
Coaching
 Assists
an individual in reaching goals faster
 Several
types of coaching:
 Peer
 Career
 Performance
 Life
 Health
Whitworth L, et al.. Co-Active Coaching, New Skills for Coaching People Toward Success in Work and Life
Tofade T. Am J Pharm Edu 2010; 74(3): Article 51.
Co-Active Coaching Model
Develop a connection
Listen/communicate effectively
Keep the end goal in sight
Ask powerful questions
Build self-awareness and self-esteem
Recognize their whole life
Whitworth L, et al.. Co-Active Coaching, New Skills for Coaching People Toward Success in Work and Life
Tofade T. Am J Pharm Edu 2010; 74(3): Article 51.
Co-Active Coaching Model
Acknowledge efforts
Identify limits
Hold the individual accountable
Debrief learning
Celebrate accomplishments
Whitworth L, et al.. Co-Active Coaching, New Skills for Coaching People Toward Success in Work and Life
Tofade T. Am J Pharm Edu 2010; 74(3): Article 51.
Precepting
What are attributes of a
“good” preceptor?
A Preceptor…
Sets
Expectations
Is Confident,
yet Humble
Provides
Feedback
Displays
Passion
Challenges
the Learner
Seeks
Learning
Activities
Cuellar LM, Ginsburg DB. Preceptor's handbook for pharmacists.
Beck DE, Boh LE, PS O'Sullivan. Am J Pharm Educ. 1995; 59: 236– 46.
The One Minute Preceptor
Have the student commit to
an assessment/plan
Require evidence
Teach concepts that can be
applied elsewhere
Provide positive feedback
Give constructive feedback
Furney SL, et al. J Gen Intern Med. 2001; 16: 620– 4.
The Learning Pyramid
Facilitating
Culminating
Integration
Coaching
Practical
Application
Modeling
Foundational Skills
and Knowledge
Direct
instruction
Nimmo CM, Guerrero R, Greene SA, Taylor JT, eds. Staff development for pharmacy practice. Bethesda, MD: ASHP; 2000
How do you incorporate direct
instruction, modeling,
coaching, and facilitation into
your precepting?
Four Facets of Precepting
 Setting
expectations
 Structured and informal learning activities
 Topic
discussions
 Journal clubs
 Providing
the learner autonomy
Mentoring, Coaching, Precepting:
Similarities and Differences
Mentoring
Coaching
Precepting
• Involves
sharing of
knowledge
• Longer time
investment
• Facilitates
decisions
• Focused on
the mentee
• Involves
questioning
and
assessing
• Limited
investment
• Reflective
listening
• Focused on
tasks
• Involves
teaching
and
evaluation
• Limited time
investment
• Focused on
the learner
and tasks
Atul G. The New Yorker. 2011 (October 3). Available at: http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2011/10/03/111003fa_fact_gawande
Communication
Communicating as a
Preceptor/Mentor/Coach
 Regular
contact is essential
 Set
clear expectations early
 Ask
open-ended questions
 Maintain
 Utilize
 Be
open lines of communication
active listening
vigilant of body language
APhA and NACDS. Available at: http://www.therapeuticresearch.com/ce/documents/custom/apha_nacds.pdf
University of Pittsburgh Institute for Clinical Research Education. Available at: http://www.icre.pitt.edu/mentoring/effective.html
The Importance of Feedback
 Vital
to the learning experience
 Preceptors
may not meet learner needs
 Meant
to improve a targeted skill or
behavior of the recipient
 It
is not an evaluation
 Novices
vs. experts respond differently
Sonthisombat P. Am J Pharm Educ. 2007;72:1–6.
Finkelstein SR, et al. J Consum Res 39; 22-38.
Purpose of Feedback
Actual Actual
performance
performance
Desired
Desired
performance
performance
Cantillon P, et al. BMJ 2008;337:a1961.
Feedback Techniques
Feedback Sandwich
Pendleton Model
Reflective Feedback Conversation
Cantillon P, et al. BMJ 2008;337:a1961.
Feedback Techniques
Feedback Sandwich
• Reinforcing statement
• Corrective statement
• Reinforcing statement
Cantillon P, et al. BMJ 2008;337:a1961.
Feedback Techniques
Pendleton Model
• Learner states what was good
• Teacher agrees and elaborates
• Learner states areas for improvement
• Teacher states areas for improvement
Cantillon P, et al. BMJ 2008;337:a1961.
Pendleton D, et al. The consultation: an approach to learning and teaching. .
Feedback Techniques
Reflective Feedback Conversation
• Teacher asks about concerns
• Learner shares concerns and what could
have been improved
• Teacher provides opinion and support
• Teacher asks learner what may improve
the situation
• Learner responds
• Teacher elaborates on learner’s response
Cantillon P, et al. BMJ 2008;337:a1961.
Feedback/Evaluation Example
Video
Effective Feedback
Timely
Scheduled
Straightforward
Specific
Collaborative
Beck DE, et al. Am J Pharm Educ. 1995;59:236–46.
Koons K, et al. J Am Pharm Assoc 2012;52: e273-e276.
Ende J. Feedback in clinical medical education. JAMA 1983;250: 777-81.
Providing Effective Feedback
1
• Prepare learner prior to the activity
2
• Provide descriptive, relevant, and
objective feedback frequently
3
• Avoid overloading the learner with
feedback
4
• Follow-up on action plans
Beck DE, et al. Am J Pharm Educ. 1995;59:236–46.
Koons K, et al. J Am Pharm Assoc 2012;52: e273-e276.
Ende J. Feedback in clinical medical education. JAMA 1983;250: 777-81.
Providing Positive vs.
Negative Feedback
Positive
Negative
Weitzel KW, et al. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2012 69:1588-1599
Common Pitfalls to Avoid
 Judgmental
 Insufficient
 Lecturing
feedback
“wait time”
inappropriately
 Close-ended
 Challenging
questions
learner past abilities
 “Sugar-coating”
 Not
focusing on the learner
Quilligan S.. Clin Teach 2007;4:100-105.
Maynard, R. Preceptor CE: Giving effective feedback to students and residents. Pharmacist’s Letter PL CE Live 2012.
GROW Model
G
•Goal
R
•Reality
O
•Options
W
•Way Forward
Personal Development Plans
(PDPs)
 Plan
and tracks progress against goals
 SMART
goals
 Professional
 Important
and personal goals
to update and assess progress
with goals at regular time intervals
PDP Example
 Name:
 Short
Term Goal(s) (completion in 1-2 years):
 Long
Term Goal(s) (completion in 5+ years):
Skills Assessment Activities
to
improve
Goal
Date
Mentor
signature
and date
Structural Tension Chart
Goal/Future
Action Steps
Date Completed
Current Reality
Fritz R. The Path of Least Resistance for Managers.
Questions to Facilitate Meetings
1.
What do you really want to do?
2.
What do you do well that allows you to
reach your goal?
3.
What is preventing you from reaching
your goals?
4.
What will you do differently tomorrow?
5.
How can I help?
Tjan AK. HBR Blog Network. Available at: http://blogs.hbr.org/tjan/2009/03/five-questions-every-mentor-mu.html
Components of Successful
Meetings
 Scheduled
time at intervals determined by
the mentor or mentee
 Assist
goals
the mentee in developing SMART
… But What About Those
Challenging Situations?
Video
Learner Scenarios
Scenario #1
 TR
is a final-year student pharmacist on his
eighth APPE rotation
 He
was 10-15 minutes late on the first week
of his rotation
 He
 TR
was on time during the second week
is now late again on the 1st day of the
third week of his rotation and is unprepared
for his topic discussion today
Scenario #2
 DE
and GL are two final-year student
pharmacists on a community pharmacy
rotation together
 Throughout
the first week, you notice that DE
appears to take more initiative and is more
prepared for the rotation than GL
Scenario #3
 You
will be precepting multiple learners in
your clinic
 JJ,
an IPPE student
 RS, an APPE student
 PL, a PGY1 resident
 How
will you ensure each learner has a
meaningful experience?
Scenario #4
 You
are an enthusiastic, innovative
pharmacist who desires to advance
pharmacy practice at your site.
Management fully supports new initiatives to
improve patient care and further
incorporate the pharmacists into a team.
 JR
is one of your colleagues who does not
see the benefit of these changes and wants
to maintain the status quo.
 How
would you approach this situation?
What other challenging
precepting situations have
you encountered?
Summary
 The
roles of preceptor, mentor, and coach
often overlap
 Clear
and open communication is key
 Feedback
is essential to the development of
a student/resident/mentee
 Various
 Tailor
feedback methods exist
the approach to the student/resident
Resources
 Stoddard
DA. The Heart of Mentoring. 1st ed.
Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress; 2003.
 Zachy
LJ. The Mentor’s Guide. 2nd ed. San
Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2012.
 Maxwell
JC. Mentoring 101. 1st ed. Nashville,
TN: Thomas Nelson; 2008.
Resources Continued
 Adams
M. Change Your Questions, Change
Your Life: 10 Powerful Tools for Life and Work.
2nd ed. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler
Publishers; 2009.
 Bradberry
T, Greaves J. Emotional
Intelligence 2.0. 1st ed. San Diego, CA:
TalentSmart; 2009.
Mentoring vs. Coaching vs.
Precepting: What’s the Difference?
Veronica Vernon, PharmD, BCPS, BCACP
Clinical Pharmacy Specialist
IPA/CPI Annual Joint Convention
September 20, 2014

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