Early Civilizations

Report
Tweety Tuesday
Topic:
Geographic features
Ex: #mountainhigh
Early Civilizations
Where did Civilizations begin?
Most civilizations
began near rivers
and lakes. The
people needed the
water for drinking
and growing plants,
a skill learned
during the
Neolithic
Revolution.
River Valleys
There are 3 reasons River Valleys were ideal locations for cities
1- Nutrient rich land surrounding the river
due to annual flooding
2- Easy transportation using boats and rafts
for people and goods
(Cultural Diffusion)
3- Steady supply of fresh water
Cultural Diffusion:
The spread of ideas,
beliefs, technology, and
goods
River Valleys
River Valleys became ideal locations for cities and settlements because of
the fertile land surrounding the river beds.
There are 4 main River Valleys where cities and civilizations began
1) Tigris Euphrates River- Middle East
2) Nile River- Egypt
3) Indus River- India
4) Huang He- China
River Valley Map
Using colored pencils or markers label the 4 early river valley civilizations
located on the map; Mesopotamia, China, Egypt, and the Indus.
Egypt
Mesopotamia
Indus Valley
China
Make sure you fill in the Map Key.
Ancient Egypt
GeographyEgypt is a desert with 90% of the population
living on 10% of the land
The Nile River was the giver of life,
providing drinking water,
irrigation for crops, and a
means of travel and trade.
The Delta- the triangular
area where the Nile River
deposits large amounts of
silt, nutrient rich soil
Egypt from Space
90% of Egypt’s
population lives on
10% of the land
Ancient Egypt
Pharaoh’s had more power than
GovernmentThe Egyptians were
ruled by dynasties
of
traditional
kings because
they were
Pharaohs. This means
the throne
would of
pass
viewed
as leaders
the government
from family member to family member
and religion.
The Pharaoh was also a god, which gave
him power over religious and political decisions
God king= more powerful
Ancient Egypt
ReligionThe Egyptians worshipped many gods,
they were Polytheistic. They believed gods
controlled nearly all aspects of life
Amon-Ra- Sun god
Osiris- Controlled annual floods of the Nile
Egyptians believed in the afterlife, and buried
their dead with tools, food, prized possessions
and even pets. Pharaohs were Mummified to
preserve their bodies and buried in huge
pyramids
The MUMMY’s Curse
Ancient Pharaohs were mummified to preserve their bodies for use in the
after life.
These tombs were packed with gold, material goods, food and comfort items
Ancient Egypt
SocietyAncient Egypt’s social pyramid was
topped by the god king, the pharaoh.
At the bottom of the pyramid were
the unskilled workers and slaves.
Many people in Ancient Egypt were
slaves.
Ancient Egypt
WritingAncient Egyptian scribes wrote in
Hieroglyphics, a form of picture
writing.
Vast records were written on
monuments, tombs and papyrus scrolls
(like paper).
Historians were not able to translate the
hieroglyphics until the discovery of the
Rosetta Stone
Ancient Egypt
Contributions-Pyramids- tombs for great Pharaohs. They took years
to complete and were filled with treasure
-Surgery and medicine
-Monuments and art work
-Rosetta stone and hieroglyphs
-irrigation systems
Hieroglyphs
Try it for yourself…
Think about it
The Nile impacted everyday life for the Egyptians. They worshipped the
God Osiris, believed to control the Nile’s floods, they used it as a source
of water and food. The Nile was the main form of transportation, and few
roads were built to connect the empire.
In what ways would a drought have affected the Ancient
Egyptians?
-What might people do to get rain?
-How would everyday life change?
-Would people be scared? Why or why not?
Ancient Mesopotamia
GeographyLocated between the Tigris and
Euphrates Rivers
Lack of natural boundaries
led to frequent
invasions
No natural boundaries
to stop
invasion, so many empires will rise and
and cultural diffusion.
fall.
Cultural Diffusion is the
The Tigris and Euphrates rivers flood
unpredictably
spread of….
Nicknamed “The Cradle of
Civilization” and “Fertile Crescent”
Ancient Mesopotamia
GovernmentHereditary governments with strong
kings
Kings were the servant of the Gods,
chosen to lead the nation
The area had many empires
rise and fall
-Sumer
-Babylon
Ancient Mesopotamia
ReligionThe Ancient Mesopotamians were
Polytheistic and built large temples to
please the gods
Ancient Mesopotamia
SocietyThere were strict social classes
Merchants, people who buy and sell
things, were in the middle class
In Ancient
Civilizations,
what determined
your social class?
Mostly Low level farmers
Your job which was determined by birth:
A farmer’s son would become a farmer
A Noble’s son would become a Noble
Ancient Mesopotamia
ContributionsCuneiform- a style of writing with
wedges and shapes
Ziggurat- step-pyramid temples for the
gods
Hammurabi’s Code- First law code
Algebra
First wheeled vehicles
Empires
Empire- group of territories controlled by one ruler.
Empire:
Territories
controlled by
one ruler
Mesopotamia had many groups of people living throughout the
valley, but they were difficult to unite under one leader. It was not
until warlike rulers seized power that we see empires grow.
How did the lack of natural
boundaries affect Mesopotamia?
How does Irregular flooding impact
the Mesopotamian societies?
Ancient Sumer
SumeriansThe Sumerians were one of the first civilizations
of the Fertile Crescent
How does the irregular flooding of the Tigris and
The Sumerians created large Ziggurats to
Euphrates
affect
worship and
honor their
gods. Mesopotamia?
( Polytheistic)
Cuneiform was the writing of the Sumerian
people. It is a mix of symbols and pictograms
What other geographic feature affects
development in the Fertile Crescent?
The Epic of Gilgameshtale of a man’s struggle
against the gods
Ancient Babylon
The Babylonian Empire was ruled by
one ruler, the most powerful was
Hammurabi
The Babylonian Empire was short
lived, but united lands from Egypt to
India
Most powerful ruler was Hammurabi
who created the Code of Hammurabi
Hammurabi’s Code
Law Codes are a set of rules to live by
Hammurabi’s code was the first collection of
laws in history
The code was written on stone for ALL to
see
Very harsh “an eye for an eye, a tooth for
a tooth”
Impact of Hammurabi’s Code
Crime
The code dealt with BOTH
criminal and civil laws. Civil
laws deal with arguments
between the people.
Punishment
murder
theft, burglary, stealing
hitting a parent
lying in court
kidnapping
hiding runaway slaves
conspiracy-planning
to commit a crime
offending the gods
DEATH
READ and
answer the
questions
SeigniorA man of importance
and rank (noble)
Is the code fair
among the Social
classes? Why or
why not?
What would
happen if a slave
was injured?
What if a seignior
knocked out a
commoner’s
tooth?
Ancient China
GeographyVaried geography includes mountains,
deserts, jungles and ocean coast line.
The mountains and ocean keep China
isolated, and it creates a unique
culture
They used Terrace Farming to grow
crops on the mountains
Terrace Farmingcut out flat areas to stop the
crops from washing away
Ancient China
Ancient China
GovernmentDynasty system of ruling families,
began with Shang family
Early china was ruled in different
areas by clans or groups of families.
Difficult to unite china because of
the various geographic features
Ancient China
ReligionPolytheistic belief in many nature
spirits
Worship dead ancestors
Yin Yang- universal balance between
peace and prosperity. If it is not
balanced it will break
Ancient China
Societythe land is owned by noble warriors
who ‘rent’ to peasants
Peasants work the land
Not unified as a country due to
geographic barriers
Ancient China
ContributionsDeveloped written Chinese for the
upper classes and Scribes
Access to the Ocean allowed for far
ranging trade all the way to the
middle east
Ancient India
Geographythe Indus River floods twice a year
predictably
The Himalaya Mountains in the North
and Northeast
of India create a
India is a Peninsula
with the Himalaya
mountains in
the North
and NE
(a impact does
natural
barrier.
What
natural barrier)
this have on the Indus River Valley?
Monsoons bring rain
The mountains keep out invading
forces, which creates relative peace and
safety
Ancient India
GovernmentLittle is known about the governments
Well planned cities- Mohenjo Daro
and Harappa
Roads in a grid with a dominate fortress
in the middle
Ancient India
ReligionEach city had a large temple to pray to
the gods.
Eventually, Hinduism, a polytheistic
religion will grow
Ancient India
SocietyLike other ancient civilizations, ancient
Indians were mostly farmers
Merchants traded as far as the Middle
East and Egypt
Ancient India
ContributionsThe first to grow cotton and weave
into clothing
Geographic impacts
What are some ways the geographic features
impacted the people of the following
civilizations?
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Lack
of natural barriers
= Lots of invasion and
Lack
of natural
barriers
Cultural
Diffusion
India
India
Peninsula and Himalayan
mountains. Indus River
Peninsula and
=isolation
and
Himalayan
mountains
predictable
floods
Egypt
Egypt
Nile River, Mediterranean
sea
= Increased trade. Only
Nile
River,
live on
10%
of land
Mediterranean
near water sea
China
China
Mountains, Desert, River, and
Ocean
Desert,
=Mountains,
isolation but
trade
River,routes
and Ocean
Geographic feature impacts
Isolation and
protection
mountains
Trade and cultural
diffusion
Waterways
Rivers/seas
Deserts
-Isolation and
protection
-difficult to live
Geographic impacts
What are some ways the Ancient people
adapted to their environment, changing it to
meet their needs?
-irrigation
-terrace farming
Crash Course: Indus Valley
340-552
Crash Course: Egypt
141-6
Crash Course: Mesopotamia
116-?
Organize the following terms into the
correct river valley
Nile
Tigris and Euphrates
Indus
Huang He
Mesopotamia
Egypt
India
China
Babylon
Sumer
Pharaohs
Delta
Polytheistic
Yin yang
Predictable
flood
Irregular
flooding
Shang Dynasty Isolated by
Himalaya Mts
Terrace farming
Isolated by
Himalaya Mts
Cuneiform
Hieroglyphics
No natural
barriers
Hammurabi
Code
Lack of
boundaries
Rosetta Stone Fertile
Crescent
Harappa
Hindu
Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt was located along
the Nile River in North East Africa.
Cities were dotted along the
Nile throughout the Egyptian
kingdom.
*Thebes
*Alexandria
*Cairo
*Giza
Feature 1: Cities. Ancient Thebes population 20,000
Ancient Egypt
To maintain power over Egypt, the Pharaohs claimed to be gods
themselves, ensuring both a political and religious power
Old Kingdom
This is the time period
when pharaohs built the
pyramids
Middle Kingdom
A time of great cultural
diffusion as a result of
trade and invaders
New Kingdom
During this time Egypt
built a vast empire
reaching
to the
Euphrates
river
Feature 2: Organized government lead by divine pharaohs
Ancient Egypt
The Egyptians worshipped many gods (Polytheistic). The people believed
in gods for nearly all aspects of life and made sacrifices to them.
Even the pharaohs
were considered Gods
Feature 3: Complex Religion- Polytheistic
Ancient Egypt
There were countless jobs for the people of
Ancient Egypt. Most people were farmers, but
there was demand for engineers, artists,
sailors, scribes, and many other positions.
Like many ancient civilizations, people were
often born into their position.
Farmers breed farmers.
Scholars breed scholars.
Pharaohs breed pharaohs.
Feature 4: Job Specialization- Pharaoh, scribes, farmers,
merchants. Everyone has a place
Ancient Egypt
Feature 5:Social Classes- Slaves made up the lowest class.
Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt was full of art. From the giant pyramids, to wall paintings in
tombs, and even statues. Egyptian art often depicted everyday life, religious
ceremonies or showed victories in battle.
Feature 6: Arts and Architecture- history told on huge
buildings or monuments
Ancient Egypt
Egypt’s civilization covered a large area of land, but was heavily dependent
on the Nile. Fertile lands could only be found an average of 10 miles on
either side of the Nile. To expand livable area, the Egyptians created
irrigation channels to increase food production.
Feature 7: Public Works- irrigation systems for annual floods
Ancient Egypt
Like many ancient civilizations the Egyptians left behind written
stories and accounts of their time. The scribes in Egypt wrote in
hieroglyphics.
Feature 8: Writing- hieroglyphics
Think about it
The Nile impacted everyday life for the Egyptians. They worshipped
Gods believed to control the Nile’s floods, they used it as a source
of water and food. The Nile was the main form of transportation,
and few roads were built to connect the empire.
In what ways would a drought have affected the Ancient
Egyptians?
-What might people do to get rain?
-How would everyday life change?
-Would people be scared? Why or why not?

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