Tweety Tuesday Topic: Geographic features Ex: #mountainhigh Early Civilizations Where did Civilizations begin? Most civilizations began near rivers and lakes. The people needed the water for drinking and growing plants, a skill learned during the Neolithic Revolution. River Valleys There are 3 reasons River Valleys were ideal locations for cities 1- Nutrient rich land surrounding the river due to annual flooding 2- Easy transportation using boats and rafts for people and goods (Cultural Diffusion) 3- Steady supply of fresh water Cultural Diffusion: The spread of ideas, beliefs, technology, and goods River Valleys River Valleys became ideal locations for cities and settlements because of the fertile land surrounding the river beds. There are 4 main River Valleys where cities and civilizations began 1) Tigris Euphrates River- Middle East 2) Nile River- Egypt 3) Indus River- India 4) Huang He- China River Valley Map Using colored pencils or markers label the 4 early river valley civilizations located on the map; Mesopotamia, China, Egypt, and the Indus. Egypt Mesopotamia Indus Valley China Make sure you fill in the Map Key. Ancient Egypt GeographyEgypt is a desert with 90% of the population living on 10% of the land The Nile River was the giver of life, providing drinking water, irrigation for crops, and a means of travel and trade. The Delta- the triangular area where the Nile River deposits large amounts of silt, nutrient rich soil Egypt from Space 90% of Egypt’s population lives on 10% of the land Ancient Egypt Pharaoh’s had more power than GovernmentThe Egyptians were ruled by dynasties of traditional kings because they were Pharaohs. This means the throne would of pass viewed as leaders the government from family member to family member and religion. The Pharaoh was also a god, which gave him power over religious and political decisions God king= more powerful Ancient Egypt ReligionThe Egyptians worshipped many gods, they were Polytheistic. They believed gods controlled nearly all aspects of life Amon-Ra- Sun god Osiris- Controlled annual floods of the Nile Egyptians believed in the afterlife, and buried their dead with tools, food, prized possessions and even pets. Pharaohs were Mummified to preserve their bodies and buried in huge pyramids The MUMMY’s Curse Ancient Pharaohs were mummified to preserve their bodies for use in the after life. These tombs were packed with gold, material goods, food and comfort items Ancient Egypt SocietyAncient Egypt’s social pyramid was topped by the god king, the pharaoh. At the bottom of the pyramid were the unskilled workers and slaves. Many people in Ancient Egypt were slaves. Ancient Egypt WritingAncient Egyptian scribes wrote in Hieroglyphics, a form of picture writing. Vast records were written on monuments, tombs and papyrus scrolls (like paper). Historians were not able to translate the hieroglyphics until the discovery of the Rosetta Stone Ancient Egypt Contributions-Pyramids- tombs for great Pharaohs. They took years to complete and were filled with treasure -Surgery and medicine -Monuments and art work -Rosetta stone and hieroglyphs -irrigation systems Hieroglyphs Try it for yourself… Think about it The Nile impacted everyday life for the Egyptians. They worshipped the God Osiris, believed to control the Nile’s floods, they used it as a source of water and food. The Nile was the main form of transportation, and few roads were built to connect the empire. In what ways would a drought have affected the Ancient Egyptians? -What might people do to get rain? -How would everyday life change? -Would people be scared? Why or why not? Ancient Mesopotamia GeographyLocated between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Lack of natural boundaries led to frequent invasions No natural boundaries to stop invasion, so many empires will rise and and cultural diffusion. fall. Cultural Diffusion is the The Tigris and Euphrates rivers flood unpredictably spread of…. Nicknamed “The Cradle of Civilization” and “Fertile Crescent” Ancient Mesopotamia GovernmentHereditary governments with strong kings Kings were the servant of the Gods, chosen to lead the nation The area had many empires rise and fall -Sumer -Babylon Ancient Mesopotamia ReligionThe Ancient Mesopotamians were Polytheistic and built large temples to please the gods Ancient Mesopotamia SocietyThere were strict social classes Merchants, people who buy and sell things, were in the middle class In Ancient Civilizations, what determined your social class? Mostly Low level farmers Your job which was determined by birth: A farmer’s son would become a farmer A Noble’s son would become a Noble Ancient Mesopotamia ContributionsCuneiform- a style of writing with wedges and shapes Ziggurat- step-pyramid temples for the gods Hammurabi’s Code- First law code Algebra First wheeled vehicles Empires Empire- group of territories controlled by one ruler. Empire: Territories controlled by one ruler Mesopotamia had many groups of people living throughout the valley, but they were difficult to unite under one leader. It was not until warlike rulers seized power that we see empires grow. How did the lack of natural boundaries affect Mesopotamia? How does Irregular flooding impact the Mesopotamian societies? Ancient Sumer SumeriansThe Sumerians were one of the first civilizations of the Fertile Crescent How does the irregular flooding of the Tigris and The Sumerians created large Ziggurats to Euphrates affect worship and honor their gods. Mesopotamia? ( Polytheistic) Cuneiform was the writing of the Sumerian people. It is a mix of symbols and pictograms What other geographic feature affects development in the Fertile Crescent? The Epic of Gilgameshtale of a man’s struggle against the gods Ancient Babylon The Babylonian Empire was ruled by one ruler, the most powerful was Hammurabi The Babylonian Empire was short lived, but united lands from Egypt to India Most powerful ruler was Hammurabi who created the Code of Hammurabi Hammurabi’s Code Law Codes are a set of rules to live by Hammurabi’s code was the first collection of laws in history The code was written on stone for ALL to see Very harsh “an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth” Impact of Hammurabi’s Code Crime The code dealt with BOTH criminal and civil laws. Civil laws deal with arguments between the people. Punishment murder theft, burglary, stealing hitting a parent lying in court kidnapping hiding runaway slaves conspiracy-planning to commit a crime offending the gods DEATH READ and answer the questions SeigniorA man of importance and rank (noble) Is the code fair among the Social classes? Why or why not? What would happen if a slave was injured? What if a seignior knocked out a commoner’s tooth? Ancient China GeographyVaried geography includes mountains, deserts, jungles and ocean coast line. The mountains and ocean keep China isolated, and it creates a unique culture They used Terrace Farming to grow crops on the mountains Terrace Farmingcut out flat areas to stop the crops from washing away Ancient China Ancient China GovernmentDynasty system of ruling families, began with Shang family Early china was ruled in different areas by clans or groups of families. Difficult to unite china because of the various geographic features Ancient China ReligionPolytheistic belief in many nature spirits Worship dead ancestors Yin Yang- universal balance between peace and prosperity. If it is not balanced it will break Ancient China Societythe land is owned by noble warriors who ‘rent’ to peasants Peasants work the land Not unified as a country due to geographic barriers Ancient China ContributionsDeveloped written Chinese for the upper classes and Scribes Access to the Ocean allowed for far ranging trade all the way to the middle east Ancient India Geographythe Indus River floods twice a year predictably The Himalaya Mountains in the North and Northeast of India create a India is a Peninsula with the Himalaya mountains in the North and NE (a impact does natural barrier. What natural barrier) this have on the Indus River Valley? Monsoons bring rain The mountains keep out invading forces, which creates relative peace and safety Ancient India GovernmentLittle is known about the governments Well planned cities- Mohenjo Daro and Harappa Roads in a grid with a dominate fortress in the middle Ancient India ReligionEach city had a large temple to pray to the gods. Eventually, Hinduism, a polytheistic religion will grow Ancient India SocietyLike other ancient civilizations, ancient Indians were mostly farmers Merchants traded as far as the Middle East and Egypt Ancient India ContributionsThe first to grow cotton and weave into clothing Geographic impacts What are some ways the geographic features impacted the people of the following civilizations? Mesopotamia Mesopotamia Lack of natural barriers = Lots of invasion and Lack of natural barriers Cultural Diffusion India India Peninsula and Himalayan mountains. Indus River Peninsula and =isolation and Himalayan mountains predictable floods Egypt Egypt Nile River, Mediterranean sea = Increased trade. Only Nile River, live on 10% of land Mediterranean near water sea China China Mountains, Desert, River, and Ocean Desert, =Mountains, isolation but trade River,routes and Ocean Geographic feature impacts Isolation and protection mountains Trade and cultural diffusion Waterways Rivers/seas Deserts -Isolation and protection -difficult to live Geographic impacts What are some ways the Ancient people adapted to their environment, changing it to meet their needs? -irrigation -terrace farming Crash Course: Indus Valley 340-552 Crash Course: Egypt 141-6 Crash Course: Mesopotamia 116-? Organize the following terms into the correct river valley Nile Tigris and Euphrates Indus Huang He Mesopotamia Egypt India China Babylon Sumer Pharaohs Delta Polytheistic Yin yang Predictable flood Irregular flooding Shang Dynasty Isolated by Himalaya Mts Terrace farming Isolated by Himalaya Mts Cuneiform Hieroglyphics No natural barriers Hammurabi Code Lack of boundaries Rosetta Stone Fertile Crescent Harappa Hindu Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was located along the Nile River in North East Africa. Cities were dotted along the Nile throughout the Egyptian kingdom. *Thebes *Alexandria *Cairo *Giza Feature 1: Cities. Ancient Thebes population 20,000 Ancient Egypt To maintain power over Egypt, the Pharaohs claimed to be gods themselves, ensuring both a political and religious power Old Kingdom This is the time period when pharaohs built the pyramids Middle Kingdom A time of great cultural diffusion as a result of trade and invaders New Kingdom During this time Egypt built a vast empire reaching to the Euphrates river Feature 2: Organized government lead by divine pharaohs Ancient Egypt The Egyptians worshipped many gods (Polytheistic). The people believed in gods for nearly all aspects of life and made sacrifices to them. Even the pharaohs were considered Gods Feature 3: Complex Religion- Polytheistic Ancient Egypt There were countless jobs for the people of Ancient Egypt. Most people were farmers, but there was demand for engineers, artists, sailors, scribes, and many other positions. Like many ancient civilizations, people were often born into their position. Farmers breed farmers. Scholars breed scholars. Pharaohs breed pharaohs. Feature 4: Job Specialization- Pharaoh, scribes, farmers, merchants. Everyone has a place Ancient Egypt Feature 5:Social Classes- Slaves made up the lowest class. Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was full of art. From the giant pyramids, to wall paintings in tombs, and even statues. Egyptian art often depicted everyday life, religious ceremonies or showed victories in battle. Feature 6: Arts and Architecture- history told on huge buildings or monuments Ancient Egypt Egypt’s civilization covered a large area of land, but was heavily dependent on the Nile. Fertile lands could only be found an average of 10 miles on either side of the Nile. To expand livable area, the Egyptians created irrigation channels to increase food production. Feature 7: Public Works- irrigation systems for annual floods Ancient Egypt Like many ancient civilizations the Egyptians left behind written stories and accounts of their time. The scribes in Egypt wrote in hieroglyphics. Feature 8: Writing- hieroglyphics Think about it The Nile impacted everyday life for the Egyptians. They worshipped Gods believed to control the Nile’s floods, they used it as a source of water and food. The Nile was the main form of transportation, and few roads were built to connect the empire. In what ways would a drought have affected the Ancient Egyptians? -What might people do to get rain? -How would everyday life change? -Would people be scared? Why or why not?