What impact did Gladstone and Disraeli have on the movement for reform? Key Questions: • Who were Gladstone and Disraeli? • Why did their background create animosity? • Why did Gladstone join the Liberals? • What did they think of each other? • What were their early influences? Who were Gladstone and Disraeli? Learning Objectives: • To understand who these two politicians are • To identify their beliefs and backgrounds • To begin to apply this to their political careers and influences British Prime Ministers http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SGDUGl0LEt 8&feature=related • British Prime Ministers – politicians who determine policy ! • How many times do Gladstone and Disraeli appear? Disraeli – 1868 and 1874 Gladstone – 1868, 1880, 1886 and 1892 Gladstone and Disraeli • Read the book review about the 2 politicians. Complete the double bubble to identify similarities and differences between them. Gladstone Disraeli William Gladstone • What impression do you get of him from this clip? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QVgDWIgb iAc Disraeli • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3yrPtRgK6 Gk&feature=related • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4dzGoNjlms&feature=related • What impression do you get from these 2 clips? Double Bubble! Using the book review you have been given complete the following task: Both inconsistent religious Anglican Gladstone Notwitty Both had self doubt Each had illness corrupt Disraeli Jewish witty Using the book review you have been given complete the following task: • Pick out features of each politician Disraeli Gladstone • • • • Cloud compelling manner Religious prig Prig Boring • • • • • Able to inspire MP’s Jewish adventurer Dandy Man of business Corrupt • Can you find any evidence of animosity? • • • • • • Feud over Peel Criticism over Maynooth Criticism of Gladstone over Disraeli’s budget Triumphs over 1867 Bill Gladstone won 1868 election Personal revulsion between them How do Gladstone and Disraeli get into power? Learning Objectives • To learn about the rise to power of these 2 politicians • To understand the influences that shaped their views. What do you already know about the two parties ? Conservatives Liberals Gladstone and Disraeli What were the influences on these two politicians? Disraeli 1. Why was he an ‘unlikely’ potential leader of the Conservatives? 2. Disraeli re-defined what the Tory Party stood for; explain his thinking on this and, in particular, clarify the term “Tory Democracy” 3. Why did Disraeli attack Peel so strongly in 1846? 4. Look at the Crisis of Conservatism on pages 339-340; do you think that the Conservatives were not successful because of the Liberal Party or because of their own problems? Gladstone and Disraeli What were the influences on these two politicians? Disraeli 1. Why was he an ‘unlikely’ potential leader of the Conservatives? • Jewish by birth in an anti-Semitic society. Most conservative backbenchers were Anglican • His background was literary not landed • Deficiencies in education – worked as a solicitors clerk • No real achievement until aged 40 • Scandalous marriage and reckless lifestyle 2. Disraeli re-defined what the Tory Party stood for; explain his thinking on this and, in particular, clarify the term “Tory Democracy” • Tory Party was a ‘National Party’ and the real source of democracy in England • Tory Democracy – vague (a strength and weakness), natural leaders of people, trust instinctive patriotism and conservatism, sought popular alliance • More charismatic style of leadership • Paternal approach from wealthy to poor at all levels • Spirit of community and be spared aggressive individualism of Liberals 3. Why did Disraeli attack Peel so strongly in 1846? • Turned down his bids to be in gov 1842 – revenge? • Claimed Peel was ignoring claims of the party and undermining parliamentary system • Peels outdated leadership = PM sovereign and sovereign serves the people 4. Look at the Crisis of Conservatism on pages 339-340; do you think that the Conservatives were not successful because of the Liberal Party or because of their own problems? • Tories – could only form minority gov lacked support, struggled to form policies when in power, 1859 Disraeli’s reform bill looked half hearted, Palmerston’s spell as PM was a disaster • Liberals – Gladstone's attack on Disraeli’s budget and his own successful budget the year after Gladstone and Disraeli What were the influences on these two politicians? Gladstone 1. How far did religion influence Gladstone personally and in his political views? 2. What evidence is there that Gladstone was hardworking? 3. Why do you think that both Liberals and Conservatives were keen to have Gladstone in their party? Gladstone and Disraeli What were the influences on these two politicians? Gladstone 1. How far did religion influence Gladstone personally and in his political views? • Deeply committed Christian and had thought seriously about ordiantion in C of Egland • Believed best way he could serve wa sthrough politics • 1830s he believed Whigs, Radicals and Irish were conspiring to destroy Anglican Church in Ireland • Began to change his ideas – believed Church-State principals were unstable, and Anglican Church in Ireland unrealistic, Non-Conformists contributed to British Christianity • BUT – always believed the church had to choose between right and wrong 2. What evidence is there that Gladstone was hard-working? • Political and administrative ability caught the attention of Peel • 1835 – (in 3 years) given office as Under-Secretary for War and Colonies • 1841 served on Board of Trade (under Peel) • 1843 – promoted to Cabinet Rank • It was halted by his resignation over Maynooth • Gained reputation as immensely able and industrious minister • “Gladstone can do in 4 hours what it took any other man 16 hours to do” – he worked 16 hours a day • Saw ministerial responsibilities as a joy not a burden and his work with Free Trade appealed to his Christian beliefs 3. Why do you think that both Liberals and Conservatives were keen to have Gladstone in their party? • His administrative skills and rhetorical power in Commons remained widely admired (even whilst in political exile with Peel) • 1850s Whig and Conservative PMs attempted to recruit him – wanted his stability • 1853 – produced one of the countries most celebrated budgets Gladstone Disraeli • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Jewish by birth Background was literary – not landed Not a good education 40 years old before he won recognition Was a scoundrel and untrustworthy Reckless, immoral, in debt He saw Whigs as a threat to freedom of men, he argued Tories were the National Party the Democratic Party of England – Tory Democracy (they were the natural leaders) He had remedies for society • Charismatic political leadership • Paternalistic approach from wealthy to poor including factory owners • Provision of schools, churches, better housing class, conflict would be destroyed and so would radical disintegration He undertook a personal vendetta against Peel and vilified him for his failings Was against centralisation of the state Made Peel squirm after 1844 he claimed Peel was undermining whole Parliamentary system Saw Peel as unfit Crisis in Conservatism: unelectable First budget of 1852 conceded protectionism was over – cut tariffs and raised income tax • • • • • • Wealthy commercial background • Father MP • Went to Eton/Oxford and very talented • Entered Commons at 23 – early • Deeply committed Christian and wanted to defend the CofE and make it only state Church • Brilliant early career – under Peel and again in 1841 • Saw politics as a form of service Free trade had a moral and Christian content the creation and preservation of wealth was a Christian duty and in turn – the individual held greater responsibility. The Free Market rewarded the virtuous and thrifty and punished the vicious and spendthrift Free Trade secured social harmony and justice His budget was based on the principals of laissez-faire and retrenchment Budget – threshold lowered for income tax and 300 duties lowered or abolished Why did Gladstone join the Liberals? • Gladstone eventually becomes leader of the Liberals, but he was asked to join the Conservatives. • Use the single sheet and choose the top 3 reasons which explain why he refused to join the Conservative Party. • Did not want to work with Disraeli • Gladstone was ambitious and the Conservatives never won • He wanted vital reforms and the Tories didn’t have the power • He was nearer the way of Liberal thinking (religious, economic and foreign policies) What impact did Gladstone and Disraeli have on the movement for reform? Read “The Nature of Politics 1846-68” • What 4 Key points is it making? What does this tell you about why a Reform Act might be passed in the future? Assessment: What impact did Gladstone and Disraeli have on the movement for reform?