What impact did Gladstone and Disraeli have on the movement for

Report
What impact did Gladstone and Disraeli
have on the movement for reform?
Key Questions:
• Who were Gladstone and Disraeli?
• Why did their background create
animosity?
• Why did Gladstone join the
Liberals?
• What did they think of each other?
• What were their early influences?
Who were Gladstone and Disraeli?
Learning Objectives:
• To understand who these two
politicians are
• To identify their beliefs and
backgrounds
• To begin to apply this to their
political careers and influences
British Prime Ministers
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SGDUGl0LEt
8&feature=related
• British Prime Ministers – politicians who
determine policy !
• How many times do Gladstone and Disraeli
appear?
Disraeli – 1868 and 1874
Gladstone – 1868, 1880,
1886 and 1892
Gladstone and Disraeli
• Read the book review about the 2 politicians. Complete the
double bubble to identify similarities and differences
between them.
Gladstone
Disraeli
William Gladstone
• What impression do you get of him from this
clip?
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QVgDWIgb
iAc
Disraeli
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3yrPtRgK6
Gk&feature=related
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4dzGoNjlms&feature=related
• What impression do you get from these 2 clips?
Double
Bubble!
Using the book review you have been given complete the
following task:
Both
inconsistent
religious
Anglican
Gladstone
Notwitty
Both
had
self
doubt
Each
had
illness
corrupt
Disraeli
Jewish
witty
Using the book review you have been given complete the following task:
• Pick out features of each politician
Disraeli
Gladstone
•
•
•
•
Cloud compelling manner
Religious prig
Prig
Boring
•
•
•
•
•
Able to inspire MP’s
Jewish adventurer
Dandy
Man of business
Corrupt
• Can you find any evidence of animosity?
•
•
•
•
•
•
Feud over Peel
Criticism over Maynooth
Criticism of Gladstone over Disraeli’s budget
Triumphs over 1867 Bill
Gladstone won 1868 election
Personal revulsion between them
How do Gladstone and Disraeli get into power?
Learning Objectives
• To learn about the rise to
power of these 2
politicians
• To understand the
influences that shaped
their views.
What do you already know about
the two parties ?
Conservatives
Liberals
Gladstone and Disraeli
What were the influences on these two
politicians?
Disraeli
1. Why was he an ‘unlikely’ potential leader of the
Conservatives?
2. Disraeli re-defined what the Tory Party stood for;
explain his thinking on this and, in particular, clarify the
term “Tory Democracy”
3. Why did Disraeli attack Peel so strongly in 1846?
4. Look at the Crisis of Conservatism on pages 339-340; do
you think that the Conservatives were not successful
because of the Liberal Party or because of their own
problems?
Gladstone and Disraeli
What were the influences on these two politicians?
Disraeli
1. Why was he an ‘unlikely’ potential leader of the Conservatives?
•
Jewish by birth in an anti-Semitic society. Most conservative backbenchers were Anglican
•
His background was literary not landed
•
Deficiencies in education – worked as a solicitors clerk
•
No real achievement until aged 40
•
Scandalous marriage and reckless lifestyle
2. Disraeli re-defined what the Tory Party stood for; explain his thinking on this and, in particular,
clarify the term “Tory Democracy”
•
Tory Party was a ‘National Party’ and the real source of democracy in England
•
Tory Democracy – vague (a strength and weakness), natural leaders of people, trust
instinctive patriotism and conservatism, sought popular alliance
•
More charismatic style of leadership
•
Paternal approach from wealthy to poor at all levels
•
Spirit of community and be spared aggressive individualism of Liberals
3. Why did Disraeli attack Peel so strongly in 1846?
•
Turned down his bids to be in gov 1842 – revenge?
•
Claimed Peel was ignoring claims of the party and undermining parliamentary system
•
Peels outdated leadership = PM sovereign and sovereign serves the people
4. Look at the Crisis of Conservatism on pages 339-340; do you think that the Conservatives were
not successful because of the Liberal Party or because of their own problems?
•
Tories – could only form minority gov lacked support, struggled to form policies when in
power, 1859 Disraeli’s reform bill looked half hearted, Palmerston’s spell as PM was a
disaster
•
Liberals – Gladstone's attack on Disraeli’s budget and his own successful budget the year
after
Gladstone and Disraeli
What were the influences on these two
politicians?
Gladstone
1. How far did religion influence Gladstone personally and
in his political views?
2. What evidence is there that Gladstone was hardworking?
3. Why do you think that both Liberals and Conservatives
were keen to have Gladstone in their party?
Gladstone and Disraeli
What were the influences on these two politicians?
Gladstone
1.
How far did religion influence Gladstone personally and in his political views?
•
Deeply committed Christian and had thought seriously about ordiantion in C of Egland
•
Believed best way he could serve wa sthrough politics
•
1830s he believed Whigs, Radicals and Irish were conspiring to destroy Anglican Church in Ireland
•
Began to change his ideas – believed Church-State principals were unstable, and Anglican Church in
Ireland unrealistic, Non-Conformists contributed to British Christianity
•
BUT – always believed the church had to choose between right and wrong
2.
What evidence is there that Gladstone was hard-working?
•
Political and administrative ability caught the attention of Peel
•
1835 – (in 3 years) given office as Under-Secretary for War and Colonies
•
1841 served on Board of Trade (under Peel)
•
1843 – promoted to Cabinet Rank
•
It was halted by his resignation over Maynooth
•
Gained reputation as immensely able and industrious minister
•
“Gladstone can do in 4 hours what it took any other man 16 hours to do” – he worked 16 hours a day
•
Saw ministerial responsibilities as a joy not a burden and his work with Free Trade appealed to his
Christian beliefs
3.
Why do you think that both Liberals and Conservatives were keen to have Gladstone in their party?
•
His administrative skills and rhetorical power in Commons remained widely admired (even whilst in political
exile with Peel)
•
1850s Whig and Conservative PMs attempted to recruit him – wanted his stability
•
1853 – produced one of the countries most celebrated budgets
Gladstone
Disraeli
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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•
Jewish by birth
Background was literary – not landed
Not a good education
40 years old before he won recognition
Was a scoundrel and untrustworthy
Reckless, immoral, in debt
He saw Whigs as a threat to freedom of men,
he argued Tories were the National Party the
Democratic Party of England – Tory Democracy
(they were the natural leaders)
He had remedies for society
• Charismatic political leadership
• Paternalistic approach from wealthy to
poor including factory owners
• Provision of schools, churches, better
housing class, conflict would be
destroyed and so would radical
disintegration
He undertook a personal vendetta against Peel
and vilified him for his failings
Was against centralisation of the state
Made Peel squirm after 1844 he claimed Peel
was undermining whole Parliamentary system
Saw Peel as unfit
Crisis in Conservatism: unelectable
First budget of 1852 conceded protectionism
was over – cut tariffs and raised income tax
•
•
•
•
•
•
Wealthy commercial background
• Father MP
• Went to Eton/Oxford and very talented
• Entered Commons at 23 – early
• Deeply committed Christian and wanted
to defend the CofE and make it only
state Church
• Brilliant early career – under Peel and
again in 1841
• Saw politics as a form of service
Free trade had a moral and Christian content the creation and preservation of wealth was a
Christian duty and in turn – the individual held
greater responsibility.
The Free Market rewarded the virtuous and
thrifty and punished the vicious and
spendthrift
Free Trade secured social harmony and justice
His budget was based on the principals of
laissez-faire and retrenchment
Budget – threshold lowered for income tax and
300 duties lowered or abolished
Why did Gladstone join the Liberals?
• Gladstone eventually
becomes leader of the
Liberals, but he was asked to
join the Conservatives.
• Use the single sheet and
choose the top 3 reasons
which explain why he refused
to join the Conservative
Party.
• Did not want to work
with Disraeli
• Gladstone was
ambitious and the
Conservatives never
won
• He wanted vital reforms
and the Tories didn’t
have the power
• He was nearer the way
of Liberal thinking
(religious, economic
and foreign policies)
What impact did Gladstone and Disraeli have on
the movement for reform?
Read “The Nature of Politics 1846-68”
• What 4 Key points is it making?
What does this tell you about why a Reform Act
might be passed in the future?
Assessment: What impact did Gladstone and
Disraeli have on the movement for reform?

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