HOW DID TRIBAL GROUPS LIVE

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Social studies
Scail
BY GROUP1
 ARVINDH-(LEADER AND FACILITATOR)
 JOEL(FACILITATOR)
 HUSSAIN(FACILITATOR)
 AADITYA(FACILITATOR)
 AASHISH(SUMMARIZER)
 FINCE(SUMMARIZER)
 DILAN(SUMMARIZER)
 LANWIN(SUMMARIZER AND ENCOURAGER)
 AKHIL(ENCOURAGER)
 KARAN(ENCOURAGER)
 Jhum or Jhoom cultivation is the local name for slash and
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burn agriculture practiced by the tribal groups
in India like Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizoram etc.
This was done on the small patches of land , mostly in
forests the cultivators cut the treetops to allow sunlight to
reach the ground , and burnt the vegetation on the land to
clear it for cultivation..
To fertilise the soil potash was used .
They used the axe to cut trees and the hoe to scratch the
soil in order to prepare it for cultivation.
They broadcast the seeds ,that is scattered the seeds on the
field instead of ploughing the land and sowing the seeds.
The lives of the tribal people depended on free movement
within forests and on being able to use the land and forests
for growing their crops
 In many regions tribal groups lived by hunting and gathering
forest produce
 The Khonds were such a community living in forests. They
went out for hunts and divided the meat amongst
themselves.
 They cooked their food with the extracted oil from seeds of
sal and mahua.
 At times they exchanged goods getting what they needed
for their forest produce.
 Some of them did odd jobs like carrying loads, building
roads, while others labored in the fields .
 The baigas of central India were reluctant to do work for
others.
 Tribal groups often needed to buy and sell in order to be able to
get goods that were not produced within the locality.
 Traders came around with things for sale and sold the goods at
higher prices.
 Moneylenders gave loans with which the tribal's met their needs,
adding what they earned.
 They therefore came to see the moneylender and trader as evil
outsider and the cause of their misery.
 Many tribal's live by herding animals, E.g. the Gujjars, the Gaddis,
the Bakharwals and the Labadis of Andhra Pradesh.
 Some took to settled cultivation and gradually got rights over the
land they lived on.
 At times the land belonged to a clan. The powerful people in the
clan rented their land to the poor people of their clan for cultivation
 The British government saw settled tribal’s as civilized and herders
as evil and savage
 Tribal Group traditionally move one place year after year for
cultivating their fields
 Very often people from the tribes acquired more powers and
so became chiefs.
 Tribal chiefs enjoys economic power as well administrative
power
 British officials found the Santhals and Gonds tribes to be
more civilized than the Hunter Gatherers.
 The Gonds of UP are a land owning community, and most of
them practice settled cultivation.
 On 30 June 1855, two Santal rebel leaders, Sidhu and Kanhu Murmu ,
mobilized 30 thousand Santals and declared a rebellion against British
colonists.
• Jhum or Jhoom cultivation is the local name for slash and burn
agriculture practiced by the tribal groups.
• This was done on the small patches of land.
• They broadcast the seeds on the field instead of ploughing the
land and sowing the seeds.
• The lives of the tribal people depended on free movement within
forests.
 During olden times there used to live many hunters and gatherers
who used to hunt and gather fruits and vegetables
 During those times there used to live a tribe called khonds who
used to hunt to get their food. This food used to be shared
among the people. They used to extract oil from a plant called
Sal and mahua.
 Some of the tribal people used to do odd work like carrying load
, building roads and work in the fields.
 They buy and sell the goods that they could not produce.
 Many tribal's live by herding animals.
 Some tribal's settled in one place for cultivation and they
made their own rights over the land.
 The powerful people in the clan rented their land to the
poor people for cultivation.
 The British government saw settled tribal’s as civilized
and herders as evil and savage.
 Tribal Group move one place year after year for
cultivating their fields
 Tribal chiefs enjoys economic power as well administrative
power
 British officials found the Santhals and Gonds tribes are
more civilized than Hunter Gatherers
 On 30 June 1855, two Santal rebel leaders, Sidhu and
Kanhu Murmu , mobilized 30 thousand Santals and
declared a rebellion against British colonists.
 QUESTION AND ANSWERS
Q: What were the lives of tribal people depend on?
ANS: The lives of the tribal people depended on free
movement within forests and on being able to use the
land and forests for growing their crops.
Q:What were the jobs done by tribal groups?
ANS: Some of them did odd jobs like carrying loads,
building roads, while others labored in the fields.
Q: Name some tribes of India who herded animals.
ANS: Many tribal's live by herding animals, E.g. the Gujjars,
the Gaddis, the Bakharwals and the Labadis of Andhra
Pradesh.
Q: What did the British found from the Santhals and
Ghonds ?
ANS: British officials found the Santhals and Gonds tribes
are more civilized than the Hunter Gatherers.
Q: How did the Khonds get and make
their food ?
 ANS: The Khonds were such a community living in
forests. They went out for hunts and divided the meat
amongst themselves. They cooked their food with the
extracted oil from seeds of sal and mahua.
Q: On which date did the two Santhal rebel leaders,
mobilized 30 thousand Santhals and declared a rebellion?
ANS: On 30 June 1855, two Santal rebel leaders, Sidhu
and Kanhu Murmu , mobilized 30 thousand Santals and
declared a rebellion against British colonists
 FILL IN THE BLANKS
1.Jhum or Jhoom cultivation was the local name of ____________.
ANS: Slash and burn agriculture.
2. They used ______ to cut tress and _____to scratch the soil.
ANS: Axe , Hoe
3. The _________ of central India hesitated to do work for others.
ANS: Baigas
4. The _______________ saw settled tribal’s as civilized and herders
as evil and savage.
ANS: The British government
5.The _____ of UP are a land owning community.
ANS: Gonds
6. ___________ gave loans with which the tribals met their needs.
ANS: Moneylenders

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