How did Peter the Great and Catherine the Great strengthen Russia

How did Philip II extend Spain’s
power and establish a golden age?
• What lands did Phillip inherit
Spain, Portugal, Netherlands, Southern Italy
• Why and how did Phillip centralize and
increase his power?
Centralize gov’t at El Escorial, no advisors (all
power to the king), used the Inquisition as a
tool to get rid of political rivals
Expansion of Spain’s influence
• Battle of Lepanto:
Spain and Italian allies defeat the Ottomans, Catholicism
defeats Muslim forces and gains power over
• The Dutch Revolt:
Long (80 yrs) war – costly fight for control over the Dutch.
Began b/c Phillip tries to force Catholicism on the
• Spanish Armada:
Large fleet of ships attacking England, demonstration of
Spain’s power
• How did Phillip encourage the Spanish
Phillip a patron of the arts, founds academies for
math and science, hires court painters
How did France become the leading
power of Europe under the control
of the Bourbon dynasty?
Making France a strong state
• Henry IV
Coverts to Catholicism to end religious conflict. Passes Edict
of Nantes to grant religious tolerance
• Cardinal Richelieu
Reduced power of Huguenots and French nobility,
destroyed feudal castles and outlawed private armies
• Louis XIV “I am the State”
Builds Versailles, refuses to call the estates general, hires
Colbert to regulate the economy, build a bureaucracy
and takes power away from the nobles
What led to the emergence of
Austria and Prussia as European
Powers and rivals?
How did the 30 yrs war and the Peace
of Westphalia divide the Holy Roman
• Politically: The Peace treaty destroys the HRE
– over 300 new german states are formed
when the HRE loss the 30 yrs war.
• Socially – many of the areas in the HRE are
physically devastated by the extreme fighting
that this war produced (depopulation is as
great as 1/3 in some areas)
• Hapsburgs unite their lands and repair their
Set up efficient central bureaucracy and
modernized Austria (Maria Theresa reforms)
• Hohenzollerns establish authority in Prussia
Growth of the military under Frederick II =
expansion of Prussia.
• War of Austria Succession
Prussia attacks Austrian just as Maria Theresa is
coming to power. War over one of the Austrian
provinces (Austrian never gains land back)
Balance of Power leads to 7 yrs war
• Rivalry led to competition (between Austria –
Prussia and England – France)
• Balance of power is based on alliance system
so when one country goes to war they are
often followed by other countries
How did Peter the Great and
Catherine the Great strengthen
Russia and Expand its territories?
Westernization and Modernization of Russia
• Peter’s Policies toward the boyars:
Western clothes, shaves the beards and get a REAL job…
• Peter’s social and economic reforms:
Builds schools, museums, library, imported western
technology and Russian alphabet.
• Catherine’s reforms and interests:
State sponsored education for boys and girls,
Public works, modernizes the legal system and organizes
the gov’t. – warm water port
• Catherine’s treatment of the serfs:
Harsh to the serfs, puts down a revolt, (expand serfdom)
Russian Expansion and conquest
• Peter’s navy and warm-water ports:
In cold port the ships are frozen, no trade during the
winter months. War with Ottoman empire for warm
ports… Peter loses.
• The Great Northern War and St. Petersburg:
Sweden and Russia go to war over land that Peter wanted
to build St. Petersburg on.
• Exploration of the Pacific Ocean:
West – Alaska, Northern Cal, Siberia
• Partition of Poland:
the dividing up of Poland – Russia, Prussia and Austria

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