Absolute Monarchs In Europe

Absolute Monarchs
In Europe
Chapter 5
Spain’s Empire and
European absolutism
Chapter 5 Section 1
A Powerful Spanish Empire
• Phillip II’s Empire
• Phillip II inherits the Spanish Netherlands, American colonies,
and most importantly Spain from his father Charles V
• How does the book describe Phillip II? How does he prove his
strength right away?
• Spain’s wealth came mostly from American mines…allowed Spain
to support a large standing army, significance?
• Defender of Catholicism
• Europe and especially Spain were used to religious conflict…the
Reconquista? The Spanish Inquisition?
• Phillip sends troop to defend Catholicism and the pope…defend
them from who?
• Spain was defeated but was still able to keep up its image of
wealth and power
Golden age of Spanish
art and literature
• El Greco and Velazquez
• Why were the Spanish able to be patrons
of the arts?
• El Greco wasn’t really Spanish…
• Paintings represented the deep Catholic
faith of Spain
• Velazquez represented who in his
• Use of rich colors by each
• Don Quixote
• Birth of the modern _________ novel
• What’s the story?
• Mocking chivalry or being idealistic
El Greco or Velazquez?
El Greco or Velazquez?
El Greco or Velazquez?
The Spanish Empire
• Inflation and Taxes
• Decline in the value of money because of the
high demand for goods and services and
_____________ flooded the market?
• Artisans and businessmen were expelled, why?
• Too high of taxes on the poor and no taxes on
the nobility…ut oh!
• Making Spain’s Enemies Rich
• Why did the Spanish feel the need to buy goods
elsewhere? Does this sound familiar?
• Spain borrows money from the Germans and
Italians to pay for wars…bankrupt!
• The Dutch Revolt
• Phillips’s taxing and eventual slaughtering of
Protestants in the Netherlands…boom new
independent country!
The Independent Dutch
• The Dutch created a republic and
tolerated different religions…weird!
• Dutch Art
• Best banks, best artists… “Northern
• Rembrandt (not the toothpaste) was the
most famous…light and shadow
• Vermeer painted domestic indoor
settings…importance of the ______ class
• Dutch Trading Empire
• Largest fleet in the world….Dutch East
India Company dominated!
• Dutchies take over as the bankers of
A Storm on the Sea of Galilee
The Music Lesson
Absolutism in Europe
• The Theory of Absolutism
• Absolute monarchs…whoa, we know this!
• Goal? Total control. Divine Right of course!
• Who did these leaders answer to?
• Growing Power of the Monarchs
• End of the Middle Ages-decline of ________
• Growing middle class tended to back
monarchs, why?
• Religious authority decreases so who is getting
all of their power?
• Crises Lead to Absolutism
• Monarchs tried to create order by increasing
their own power and controlling every part of
society. Sound fun?
5.1 DAILY Questions
1. Explain the economic weaknesses of the Spanish Empire.
2. Explain the ways in which the Dutch Empire prospered
following its independence from Spain
Honors Only
3. Do you think a wealthy society is necessary for the
production of great art? Why or why not? Explain.
The Reign of Louis XIV
Chapter 5 Section 2
Religious Wars and
Power Struggles
• Henry of Navarre
• Became Henry IV the first king of the
Bourbon dynasty
• Catholics opposed Henry, why?
• With the Edict of Nantes Henry
allows the Huguenots (French
Protestants) to live and worship in
• Devoted to rebuilding France and
restoring the monarchy
• How does Henry die?
• Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu
• Louis XIII’s minister (and leader of
the Catholic Church in France)
essentially rules France…problem?
• Moves against the Huguenots and
weakened the power of the nobles
(relied on middle class gov’t agents)
• France enters the 30 Years’ War to
limit the power of the Hapsburgs
Writers Turn
Toward Skepticism
• Skepticism-nothing can be
known for certain…began to
doubt the church
• Montaigne and Descartes
• The development of the essay
and the idea that humans
could never have absolute
knowledge of truth
• Descartes used __________
and ________ to answer
arguments and create his own
Louis XIV Comes to Power
• “L’etat, c’est moi.”-Louis XIV
• Louis, the Boy King
• Cardinal Mazarin takes over was Richelieu's successor but he was very
unpopular, why?
• The French people rebelled but failed because:
• Leaders distrusted one another
• The gov’t used violent repression
• People grew tired of disorder and fighting
• Louis Weakens the Nobles’ Authority
• Louis comes to power at age 22, decreases the power of the nobility and
increases the power of intendants (no one likes the tax man)
• Jean Baptiste Colbert attempts to make France self-sufficient
(mercantilism), what does that mean?
• Gives money to businesses, imposes high tariffs
• Louis contradicts Colbert and cancels the Edict of Nantes which does
The Sun King’s Grand
• Louis Controls the Nobility
• Nobles at the palace increased Louis’s
power, how?
• Louis’s Palace at Versailles was like a
royal city…so extravagant! Anyone
been there?
• Patronage of the Arts
• Art was an important aspect of Louis’s
• Art was not to glorify ________
anymore, but instead to glorify the
• Do you think Louis was an absolute
The gardens at the Palace of Versailles
Inside the palace
Louis Fights Disastrous
• Attempts to Expand France’s Boundaries
• European alliances against France allowed for
very little expansion…seeking a balance of
power in Europe
• England, Austria Hapsburg, Sweden, and
Spain form an alliance against a weakened
• War of the Spanish Succession
• Charles II dies and leaves his throne to who?
• The War of Spanish Succession was fought
to prevent the __________ from taking the
_________ throne.
• Louis’s grandson was allowed to rule as long
as France and Spain were not united
• Who was the ultimate winner here? (slaves
and territory)
Louis Fights Disastrous
• Louis’s Death and Legacy
• By the end of his reign Louis
began to feel bad about the
suffering of his people
• He left a mixed legacy
• The positives: art,
literature, statesmanship,
military, colonies
• The negatives: debt, taxes
on the poor
5.2 DAILY Questions
1. Explain Jean Baptiste Colbert’s plan for France’s
economy. How did this strategy change after Colbert’s
2. Explain the differences between Henry IV and his son
Louis XIII in terms of ruling and economic policies.
Honors Only
3. How might political and religious leaders have reacted
to the work of Montaigne? Did Descartes’s response to
the challenges of skeptics such as Montaigne put an end
to the skeptics’ argument?
Central European
Monarchs Clash
Chapter 5 Section 3
The Thirty Years’ War
• Bohemian Protestants Revolt
• Ferdinand II (a Catholic) rules
Bohemia (in the Czech Kingdom, a
widely Protestant place)
• The Thirty Years’ War was a conflict
over __________ and _______ among
European ruling families
• Hapsburg Triumphs
• 1618-1648
• The Hapsburg armies are able to
crush uprisings…how does Ferdinand
II pay his troops?
• Hapsburg Defeats
• Gustavus Adolphus runs the show
until his death in 1632
• Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin join the
Protestants even though they are
Catholic, why?
• Peace of Westphalia
• Germany is destroyed by the war and
recovery would be long and difficult
• Peace of Westphalia ends the war
• Weakened Spain and Austria
• Strengthened France how?
• German princes became
independent from who?
• Ended religious wars
• Changed negotiation techniques,
• What was the most important result
of the Thirty Years’ War?
States form in Central
• Poland, Holy Roman Empire, and the
Ottoman Empire become strong
• Economic Contrasts with the West
Why was western Europe’s economy so
different from eastern Europe?
• Several Weak Empires
Lack of a strong leader in Poland
The Ottoman Empire could not conquer
anymore of Europe
H.R.E. was weakened by _____________
• Austria Grows Stronger
Hapsburg of Austria did three things:
• Wiped out Protestantism in the Czech
• Central gov’t, standing ________
• Took back Hungary
States Form in Central
• Maria Theresa Inherits the
• A diverse group of people lived
under the Hapsburg…how would
they all get along? How were they
all “united”?
• Charles VI asks the rest of Europe
to recognize his daughter Maria
Theresa as the heir to the throne
and ruler of all of their territories
• Did Maria Theresa have a peaceful
Prussia Challenges
• The Rise of Prussia
• Frederick William (The Great Elector)
decides to build up the Prussian _______ to
protect their lands
• How is the monarchy in Prussia created?
• The landowning nobility pressure the
monarchy…how does the monarchy
• Frederick the Great
• Frederick II was taught at an early age how
to rule (militarily)
• A ruler should be like a ___________ to his
• Religious toleration and legal reform…not
as strict as dad
Prussia Challenges
• War of the Austrian Succession
• Maria Theresa and Frederick II battle
over territory just outside of Prussia
• Austria, Hungary, and GB vs. France
and Prussia…who wins?
• With Silesia, Prussia becomes a
major world power
• The Seven Years’ War
• Prussia and Austria switch allies and
Russia becomes a part of European
• The Seven Years war was fought on
three different continents but resulted
in no territorial changes (in Europe)
• Who was the real winner here, why?
5.3 DAILY Questions
1. Why was the Peace of Westphalia not only significant to
the time (1628), but also significant to modern day Europe?
2. Compare and contrast the leadership styles of Maria
Theresa of Austria and Frederick the Great of Prussia.
Honors Only
3. How might Catholic Church officials have reacted to
Richelieu’s and Mazarin’s actions during the ThirtyYears’ War?
Absolute Rulers of Russia
Chapter 5 Section 4
The First CZAR
• Ivan IV aka Ivan the ___________ came to
the throne of Russia at what age?
• The landowning nobles attempted to control
Ivan until he crowned himself czar and
married Anastasia Romanov
• Rule by Terror
Why does Ivan turn against the boyars?
What did Ivan do to earn him the name Ivan
the Terrible?
Ivan even killed his oldest and strongest son,
the heir to the Russian throne
• Rise of the Romanovs
The “Time of Troubles” occurs because Ivan’s
son is incapable…imposters even try to take the
Michael Romanov (Anastasia’s grandnephew)
is chosen to rule…why is this significant?
Peter the Great Comes
to Power
• Peter the Great, another absolute ruler
restores order and strengthens the gov’t in
• Russia Contrasts with Europe
• Serfdom continued through the 1800s,
• Boyars knew little about Western
Europe…the Renaissance and the Age of
Exploration, significance?
• How was Russia geographically isolated?
• Many Russians were Eastern Orthodox,
not Catholic or Protestant
• Peter Visits the West
• What did Peter focus on in terms of
advancing Russia technologically?
• Peter learns about western culture and
brings back ideas of the rest of Europe
Peter Rules Absolutely
• Peter’s ultimate goal was the
westernization of Russia to keep up
with Europe both militarily and
• Peter’s Reforms
Brings the Russian Orthodox Church
under state control with the Synod
Reduce the power of landowners and
increased the power of who?
Drilled the army with European tactics, a
soldier’s job was his life
• Westernizing Russia
Peter Rules Absolutely
• Establishing St. Petersburg
• Peter fights ___________ in order to
obtain the “window on Europe” on the
Baltic Coast…for what purpose?
• What kind of land did Peter build this
port city upon? Easy or difficult?
• Terrible working conditions and
diseases killed many Russian serfs
• Russian __________ were able to move
to the new port city at St. Petersburg
• Was Peter successful at westernizing
5.4 DAILY Questions
1. How were serfs treated in Russia? Give specific details.
2. What was the most significant way Peter the Great
westernized Russia? Explain.
Honors Only
3. Why did Peter want to bring the Orthodox Church under
state control?
Parliament Limits the
English Monarchy
Chapter 5 Section 5
Parliament Limits the
English Monarchy
• James Stuart (King of Scotland) becomes
King James I of ___________, why?
• James’s Problems
• Struggles with Parliament over money
• Refused to make Puritan reforms like?
• Charles I Fights Parliament
• Takes over when James dies in 1625, at
war and always needs $$$
• Petition of Right
• Imprisonment
• Taxes
• Soldiers
• Martial law
• How did Charles respond? Importance?
English Civil War
• Charles wanted both of his kingdoms to
follow one religion (Anglican Church)
• In order to oppose the Scots Charles
needs money from who?
• War Topples a King
• The English Civil War was fought
between the __________ and the
• The leader of the Puritans, Oliver
Cromwell captured the king and put him
on trial for treason
• Why was the death sentence for Charles
English Civil War
• Cromwell’s Rule
• Cromwell establishes a republic but
eventually becomes a ______________
• Cromwell takes over Ireland, how did he
treat the Irish?
• Puritan Morality
• Cromwell and the Puritans hope to
relieve England of sinful activities such
• Cromwell believed in religious toleration
for most religions except ____________
• Jews were able to come back to England
as well
Restoration and Revolution
• The son of Charles is asked to rule as
England grows tired of military rule
• Charles II Reigns
• The period of Charles II rules is called
• The idea of habeas corpus is
introduced…what does this mean?
• Parliament debated who would be
Charles’s heir…why didn’t they want his
brother James? Whigs and Tories emerge,
• James II and the Glorious Revolution
• James displays his Catholicism and the
English are not happy
• Why were William and Mary invited to
take over the English throne?
Limits on Monarch’s
• England changes from a ____________ monarchy to a
____________ monarchy under William and Mary, significance?
• Bill of Rights
• 1689 document addresses Parliament’s laws, freedom of speech and
petitions against the king
• Will and Mary agree to significant checks on their power
• Cabinet System Develops
• The cabinet serves as a mediator between Parliament and the
• Under this system “the leader of the majority party in Parliament
heads the cabinet and is called the prime minister” what does this
5.5 Daily Questions
1. Explain the idea of Habeas Corpus, why was it so significant
for the people of England?
2. How did the constitutional monarchy differ from the previous
absolute monarchy in England?
Honors Only
3. Why might William and Mary have been willing to accept the
limits placed on their authority?

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