Absolute Monarchs In Europe Chapter 5 Spain’s Empire and European absolutism Chapter 5 Section 1 A Powerful Spanish Empire • Phillip II’s Empire • Phillip II inherits the Spanish Netherlands, American colonies, and most importantly Spain from his father Charles V • How does the book describe Phillip II? How does he prove his strength right away? • Spain’s wealth came mostly from American mines…allowed Spain to support a large standing army, significance? • Defender of Catholicism • Europe and especially Spain were used to religious conflict…the Reconquista? The Spanish Inquisition? • Phillip sends troop to defend Catholicism and the pope…defend them from who? • Spain was defeated but was still able to keep up its image of wealth and power Golden age of Spanish art and literature • El Greco and Velazquez • Why were the Spanish able to be patrons of the arts? • El Greco wasn’t really Spanish… • Paintings represented the deep Catholic faith of Spain • Velazquez represented who in his paintings? • Use of rich colors by each • Don Quixote • Birth of the modern _________ novel • What’s the story? • Mocking chivalry or being idealistic El Greco or Velazquez? El Greco or Velazquez? El Greco or Velazquez? The Spanish Empire Weakens • Inflation and Taxes • Decline in the value of money because of the high demand for goods and services and _____________ flooded the market? • Artisans and businessmen were expelled, why? • Too high of taxes on the poor and no taxes on the nobility…ut oh! • Making Spain’s Enemies Rich • Why did the Spanish feel the need to buy goods elsewhere? Does this sound familiar? • Spain borrows money from the Germans and Italians to pay for wars…bankrupt! • The Dutch Revolt • Phillips’s taxing and eventual slaughtering of Protestants in the Netherlands…boom new independent country! The Independent Dutch prosper • The Dutch created a republic and tolerated different religions…weird! • Dutch Art • Best banks, best artists… “Northern Renaissance” • Rembrandt (not the toothpaste) was the most famous…light and shadow • Vermeer painted domestic indoor settings…importance of the ______ class • Dutch Trading Empire • Largest fleet in the world….Dutch East India Company dominated! • Dutchies take over as the bankers of Europe A Storm on the Sea of Galilee The Music Lesson Absolutism in Europe • The Theory of Absolutism • Absolute monarchs…whoa, we know this! • Goal? Total control. Divine Right of course! • Who did these leaders answer to? • Growing Power of the Monarchs • End of the Middle Ages-decline of ________ • Growing middle class tended to back monarchs, why? • Religious authority decreases so who is getting all of their power? • Crises Lead to Absolutism • Monarchs tried to create order by increasing their own power and controlling every part of society. Sound fun? 5.1 DAILY Questions 1. Explain the economic weaknesses of the Spanish Empire. 2. Explain the ways in which the Dutch Empire prospered following its independence from Spain Honors Only 3. Do you think a wealthy society is necessary for the production of great art? Why or why not? Explain. The Reign of Louis XIV Chapter 5 Section 2 Religious Wars and Power Struggles • Henry of Navarre • Became Henry IV the first king of the Bourbon dynasty • Catholics opposed Henry, why? • With the Edict of Nantes Henry allows the Huguenots (French Protestants) to live and worship in France • Devoted to rebuilding France and restoring the monarchy • How does Henry die? • Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu • Louis XIII’s minister (and leader of the Catholic Church in France) essentially rules France…problem? • Moves against the Huguenots and weakened the power of the nobles (relied on middle class gov’t agents) • France enters the 30 Years’ War to limit the power of the Hapsburgs Writers Turn Toward Skepticism • Skepticism-nothing can be known for certain…began to doubt the church • Montaigne and Descartes • The development of the essay and the idea that humans could never have absolute knowledge of truth • Descartes used __________ and ________ to answer arguments and create his own philosophy Louis XIV Comes to Power • “L’etat, c’est moi.”-Louis XIV • Louis, the Boy King • Cardinal Mazarin takes over was Richelieu's successor but he was very unpopular, why? • The French people rebelled but failed because: • Leaders distrusted one another • The gov’t used violent repression • People grew tired of disorder and fighting • Louis Weakens the Nobles’ Authority • Louis comes to power at age 22, decreases the power of the nobility and increases the power of intendants (no one likes the tax man) • Jean Baptiste Colbert attempts to make France self-sufficient (mercantilism), what does that mean? • Gives money to businesses, imposes high tariffs • Louis contradicts Colbert and cancels the Edict of Nantes which does what? The Sun King’s Grand Style • Louis Controls the Nobility • Nobles at the palace increased Louis’s power, how? • Louis’s Palace at Versailles was like a royal city…so extravagant! Anyone been there? • Patronage of the Arts • Art was an important aspect of Louis’s reign • Art was not to glorify ________ anymore, but instead to glorify the ________! • Do you think Louis was an absolute monarch? The gardens at the Palace of Versailles Inside the palace Louis Fights Disastrous Wars • Attempts to Expand France’s Boundaries • European alliances against France allowed for very little expansion…seeking a balance of power in Europe • England, Austria Hapsburg, Sweden, and Spain form an alliance against a weakened France • War of the Spanish Succession • Charles II dies and leaves his throne to who? • The War of Spanish Succession was fought to prevent the __________ from taking the _________ throne. • Louis’s grandson was allowed to rule as long as France and Spain were not united • Who was the ultimate winner here? (slaves and territory) Louis Fights Disastrous Wars • Louis’s Death and Legacy • By the end of his reign Louis began to feel bad about the suffering of his people • He left a mixed legacy • The positives: art, literature, statesmanship, military, colonies • The negatives: debt, taxes on the poor 5.2 DAILY Questions 1. Explain Jean Baptiste Colbert’s plan for France’s economy. How did this strategy change after Colbert’s death? 2. Explain the differences between Henry IV and his son Louis XIII in terms of ruling and economic policies. Honors Only 3. How might political and religious leaders have reacted to the work of Montaigne? Did Descartes’s response to the challenges of skeptics such as Montaigne put an end to the skeptics’ argument? Central European Monarchs Clash Chapter 5 Section 3 The Thirty Years’ War • Bohemian Protestants Revolt • Ferdinand II (a Catholic) rules Bohemia (in the Czech Kingdom, a widely Protestant place) • The Thirty Years’ War was a conflict over __________ and _______ among European ruling families • Hapsburg Triumphs • 1618-1648 • The Hapsburg armies are able to crush uprisings…how does Ferdinand II pay his troops? • Hapsburg Defeats • Gustavus Adolphus runs the show until his death in 1632 • Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin join the Protestants even though they are Catholic, why? • Peace of Westphalia • Germany is destroyed by the war and recovery would be long and difficult • Peace of Westphalia ends the war • Weakened Spain and Austria • Strengthened France how? • German princes became independent from who? • Ended religious wars • Changed negotiation techniques, how? • What was the most important result of the Thirty Years’ War? States form in Central Europe • Poland, Holy Roman Empire, and the Ottoman Empire become strong • Economic Contrasts with the West • Why was western Europe’s economy so different from eastern Europe? • Several Weak Empires • • • Lack of a strong leader in Poland The Ottoman Empire could not conquer anymore of Europe H.R.E. was weakened by _____________ • Austria Grows Stronger • Hapsburg of Austria did three things: • Wiped out Protestantism in the Czech territory • Central gov’t, standing ________ • Took back Hungary States Form in Central Europe • Maria Theresa Inherits the Throne • A diverse group of people lived under the Hapsburg…how would they all get along? How were they all “united”? • Charles VI asks the rest of Europe to recognize his daughter Maria Theresa as the heir to the throne and ruler of all of their territories • Did Maria Theresa have a peaceful reign? Prussia Challenges Austria • The Rise of Prussia • Frederick William (The Great Elector) decides to build up the Prussian _______ to protect their lands • How is the monarchy in Prussia created? • The landowning nobility pressure the monarchy…how does the monarchy respond? • Frederick the Great • Frederick II was taught at an early age how to rule (militarily) • A ruler should be like a ___________ to his people • Religious toleration and legal reform…not as strict as dad Prussia Challenges Austria • War of the Austrian Succession • Maria Theresa and Frederick II battle over territory just outside of Prussia • Austria, Hungary, and GB vs. France and Prussia…who wins? • With Silesia, Prussia becomes a major world power • The Seven Years’ War • Prussia and Austria switch allies and Russia becomes a part of European affairs • The Seven Years war was fought on three different continents but resulted in no territorial changes (in Europe) • Who was the real winner here, why? 5.3 DAILY Questions 1. Why was the Peace of Westphalia not only significant to the time (1628), but also significant to modern day Europe? 2. Compare and contrast the leadership styles of Maria Theresa of Austria and Frederick the Great of Prussia. Honors Only 3. How might Catholic Church officials have reacted to Richelieu’s and Mazarin’s actions during the ThirtyYears’ War? Absolute Rulers of Russia Chapter 5 Section 4 The First CZAR • Ivan IV aka Ivan the ___________ came to the throne of Russia at what age? • The landowning nobles attempted to control Ivan until he crowned himself czar and married Anastasia Romanov • Rule by Terror • • • Why does Ivan turn against the boyars? What did Ivan do to earn him the name Ivan the Terrible? Ivan even killed his oldest and strongest son, the heir to the Russian throne • Rise of the Romanovs • • The “Time of Troubles” occurs because Ivan’s son is incapable…imposters even try to take the throne Michael Romanov (Anastasia’s grandnephew) is chosen to rule…why is this significant? Peter the Great Comes to Power • Peter the Great, another absolute ruler restores order and strengthens the gov’t in Russia • Russia Contrasts with Europe • Serfdom continued through the 1800s, why? • Boyars knew little about Western Europe…the Renaissance and the Age of Exploration, significance? • How was Russia geographically isolated? • Many Russians were Eastern Orthodox, not Catholic or Protestant • Peter Visits the West • What did Peter focus on in terms of advancing Russia technologically? • Peter learns about western culture and brings back ideas of the rest of Europe Peter Rules Absolutely • Peter’s ultimate goal was the westernization of Russia to keep up with Europe both militarily and commercially • Peter’s Reforms • • • Brings the Russian Orthodox Church under state control with the Synod Reduce the power of landowners and increased the power of who? Drilled the army with European tactics, a soldier’s job was his life • Westernizing Russia • • • • • Potatoes Newspapers Women Fashion Education Peter Rules Absolutely • Establishing St. Petersburg • Peter fights ___________ in order to obtain the “window on Europe” on the Baltic Coast…for what purpose? • What kind of land did Peter build this port city upon? Easy or difficult? • Terrible working conditions and diseases killed many Russian serfs • Russian __________ were able to move to the new port city at St. Petersburg • Was Peter successful at westernizing Russia? 5.4 DAILY Questions 1. How were serfs treated in Russia? Give specific details. 2. What was the most significant way Peter the Great westernized Russia? Explain. Honors Only 3. Why did Peter want to bring the Orthodox Church under state control? Parliament Limits the English Monarchy Chapter 5 Section 5 Parliament Limits the English Monarchy • James Stuart (King of Scotland) becomes King James I of ___________, why? • James’s Problems • Struggles with Parliament over money • Refused to make Puritan reforms like? • Charles I Fights Parliament • Takes over when James dies in 1625, at war and always needs $$$ • Petition of Right • Imprisonment • Taxes • Soldiers • Martial law • How did Charles respond? Importance? English Civil War • Charles wanted both of his kingdoms to follow one religion (Anglican Church) • In order to oppose the Scots Charles needs money from who? • War Topples a King • The English Civil War was fought between the __________ and the _________. • The leader of the Puritans, Oliver Cromwell captured the king and put him on trial for treason • Why was the death sentence for Charles revolutionary? English Civil War • Cromwell’s Rule • Cromwell establishes a republic but eventually becomes a ______________ dictatorship • Cromwell takes over Ireland, how did he treat the Irish? • Puritan Morality • Cromwell and the Puritans hope to relieve England of sinful activities such as? • Cromwell believed in religious toleration for most religions except ____________ • Jews were able to come back to England as well Restoration and Revolution • The son of Charles is asked to rule as England grows tired of military rule • Charles II Reigns • The period of Charles II rules is called what? • The idea of habeas corpus is introduced…what does this mean? • Parliament debated who would be Charles’s heir…why didn’t they want his brother James? Whigs and Tories emerge, significance? • James II and the Glorious Revolution • James displays his Catholicism and the English are not happy • Why were William and Mary invited to take over the English throne? Limits on Monarch’s Power • England changes from a ____________ monarchy to a ____________ monarchy under William and Mary, significance? • Bill of Rights • 1689 document addresses Parliament’s laws, freedom of speech and petitions against the king • Will and Mary agree to significant checks on their power • Cabinet System Develops • The cabinet serves as a mediator between Parliament and the monarchy • Under this system “the leader of the majority party in Parliament heads the cabinet and is called the prime minister” what does this mean? 5.5 Daily Questions 1. Explain the idea of Habeas Corpus, why was it so significant for the people of England? 2. How did the constitutional monarchy differ from the previous absolute monarchy in England? Honors Only 3. Why might William and Mary have been willing to accept the limits placed on their authority?