What was the Cold War and why did it develop?

Report
What was the Cold War and why
did it develop?
C – I can describe what the Cold War was and how it
had its origins before World War Two and the Tehran,
Yalta and Potsdam Conferences.
B – I can explain what the Cold War was and how it
had its origins before World War Two and the Tehran,
Yalta and Potsdam Conferences.
C – I can explain what the Cold War was and can link
and prioritise the reasons for its development.
What was the Cold War?
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•
USA vs. USSR (Russia)
Capitalism vs. Communism
West vs. East
NATO vs. Warsaw Pact
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NOT FIGHTING!!
Started 1945/6
Lasted 40 years
USA and USSR were the MOST POWERFUL countries in
the world after 1945. Britain, Germany, France and
Japan all much weaker after fighting WW2.
What were the features of the Cold
War?
• Spying – Spied on each other, particularly each other’s
military. Spy planes used, like USA’s U2 plane.
• Propaganda – Both sides created the worst possible image
of the other to win over public opinion. Sporting success
also used as propaganda.
• Arms race – Competition over who had most weapons
(including Nuclear). Both sides had more than enough
weapons to wipe each other out (Mutually Assured
Destruction theory). This acted as a deterrant to the Cold
War going ‘hot’ (fighting).
• Space race – Competition to see who could launch first
satellite, put first man in space, put first man on moon.
Effective propaganda.
• Loans and aid – Both sides provided loans and aid to newly
less developed countries to try to win their support.
How did the Cold War rivalry originate?
• Capitalism vs. Communism
• Russia became Communist in 1917 after the Bolshevik
revolution.
• Capitalism and Communism were opposing political theories.
Caused tension.
Capitalism
Communism
Politics – many political parties. Elected
governments.
Economy – Privately owned business and
big differences between rich and poor.
Politics – Just the Communist Party. No
genuinely elected governments.
Economy – Industry owned by the
government. Equality between rich and
poor.
Beliefs – Everyone equal. Believe in
encouraging World Revolution to turn
world communist.
Beliefs – Little media censorship.
Acceptance of differences between rich
and poor.
Why did rivalry deepen before WW2?
• Hitler – Hitler openly hated Communism.
Stalin believed Britain, France and USA would
ally with Hitler against USSR.
• Nazi-Soviet Pact – Signed in 1939 by Hitler
and Stalin. Britain, France and USA hated
Stalin and USSR even more.
Why did the rivalry develop during
World War 2?
• Spying – Spied on each other, particularly each other’s
military. Spy planes used, like USA’s U2 plane.
• Propaganda – Both sides created the worst possible image
of the other to win over public opinion. Sporting success
also used as propaganda.
• Arms race – Competition over who had most weapons
(including Nuclear). Both sides had more than enough
weapons to wipe each other out (Mutually Assured
Destruction theory). This acted as a deterrant to the Cold
War going ‘hot’ (fighting).
• Space race – Competition to see who could launch first
satellite, put first man in space, put first man on moon.
Effective propaganda.
• Loans and aid – Both sides provided loans and aid to newly
less developed countries to try to win their support.
Tehran:
Where: Tehran, capital city of Iran.
When: November 1943.
Who: Stalin (USSR), Roosevelt (USA), Churchill (GB)
What was agreed:
• Britain and USA agreed to open up a ‘second
front’ in the war
• USSR agreed to fight with the USA against Japan.
• United Nations.
• Stalin secured agreement that a section of Poland
would become part of the Soviet Union.
Tehran – Strains Starting to Show
• Second front - Stalin was frustrated that the US
and GB delayed opening up a second front. Soviet
damage!
• Churchill - Churchill was suspicious of Stalin and
him spreading communism.
• Poland –Stalin had clearly set his sights on
controlling Poland.
• Warsaw Uprisi ng – Soviet forces they failed to
intervene and support the Polish uprising in
Warsaw and let the Germans brutally crush the
Polish rebels.
Yalta:
Where: Yalta, Ukraine
When: February 1945
Who: Stalin (USSR), Roosevelt (USA), Churchill (GB)
What was agreed:
• USSR would fight Japan
• 4 zones: Germany and Berlin
• Nazi war criminals to be punished
• Free elections for liberated countries.
• Confirmed set up of UN.
• Eastern Europe would be created as a Soviet sphere of
influence.
Yalta – Strains starting to show
• Reparations: Stalin wanted Germany to pay
higher reparations that US and GB wanted. No
decision was made.
• Poland: Stalin wanted to take much more Polish
land than GB and the USA wanted to allow. He
also wanted a ‘friendly’ Polish government. The
western powers feared this would be a Soviet
controlled government. Stalin was persuaded to
allow free elections in Poland.
Potsdam
Where: Potsdam, Germany
When: July 1945
Who: Stalin (USSR), Truman (USA ) and Attlee (GB)
Events before conference:
• Soviet Troops liberated countries in Eastern Europe and
then left soldiers in each country (Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia,
Finland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania).
• Stalin set up a Communist government in Poland, ignoring
the wishes of most Poles and the protests of GB and USA.
• Soviet Union continued to expand armed forces.
• Truman replaced Roosevelt after his death.
• USA successfully tested the A-Bomb.
• Churchill defeated in 1945 General Election in GB.
Potsdam
What was agreed:
• Germany and Berlin to be divided as agreed at
Yalta.
• Germany to be demilitarised.
• Hold free elections in Germany.
• Germany to pay reparations in equipment and
materials, most to the Soviet Union.
• Nazi Party banned and leading Nazis put on trial.
• UN set up.
• Poland’s frontier with USSR moved West.
Potsdam - Disagreements
• Stalin wanted to crush Germany. Truman
disagreed.
• Free elections: Truman wanted free elections
in Eastern European countries occupied by
Soviet Troops. Stalin refused to listen.
• Truman ‘gets tough’.
Who was to blame?
Soviet Union to blame
- Determined to spread
communism to other
countries.
- Refused to allow free
elections to ensure
communist governments
were set up.
BUT:
Russia had twice been invaded
by Germany and had suffered
enormous losses.
Soviet Union wanted to create a
buffer against Germany.
Stalin feared the USA’s Atom
Bomb.
USA to blame
Both to blame
- Didn’t understand the
- The Cold War was down to a
suffering the Soviet Union
lack of trust between the
had endured.
two countries.
- Used the Atom Bomb to
- Both sides overreacted and
threaten the Soviet Union.
were overly aggressive.
- USA only concerned about
furthering there own
interests in Eastern Europe.
BUT
America genuinely wanted to
see free elections in Europe.
America had learned the lesson
of treating Germany too harshly
at Verailles.
Questions
1. Describe one decision made at the Tehran conference . (2
marks, 2 minutes, POINT EXPLANATION)
2. Briefly explain the events of the Yalta conference. (6
marks, 8 minutes, POINT EXPLANATION X3)
3. Briefly explain what was agreed at the Potsdam
conference. (6 marks, 8 minutes, POINT EXPLANATION X3)
4. Describe one area of disagreement between the Soviet
Union and the USA at Potsdam. (2 marks, 2 minutes,
POINT EXPLANATION)
5. Explain why relations between the Soviet Union and the
USA grew worse, 1943 – 1945. (12 marks, 15 minutes,
POINT EXPLANATION LINK X3, CONCLUSION)

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