Russian Revolution and Totalitarianism

Report
The Rise of
Totalitarianism
Communism in Russia
Fascism in Italy, Germany,
and Japan
Totalitarian states have governments that have
complete control over every aspect of people’s lives.
Hitler did not get elected by promising the
Hitler was elected
because
he
German
people
that he would lead them into
fear
of
Howpromised
did
to improve
German
another
World War… kill millions of
terrorists provide
totalitarian
education…
childstart
care the
for Holocaust… create Death
Germans…
governments
working
mothers… Camps…
improve destroy
the
German cities…
Secret Police
come
to and get more jobs… and
economy
encouraging
power?
restore
German pride
Laws
to “Protect”
citizens
informants
Convinced the German people to trade their
freedoms for protection from evil enemies
Scapegoating evil
enemies of the people
How did totalitarian
governments keep
Why did people turn over
control over the
theirCould
control
to
a
a totalitarian government take over the
people?
totalitarian government?
United States of America?
Totalitarian states are
ones where the
governments have
complete control over all
aspects of people’s private
and public lives.
Rise of Totalitarian States (1919-1941)
InJapan,
Russia,
hundreds
of years
of debts
rule
byfrom
Czars
was of
InAfter
astruggled
series
Emperor
of weak
Hirohito
governments
lost
power
inthe
to
Italy,
the
military
Germany
to
repay
the
theBenito
Treaty
These
leaders
used
secret
police,
fear
of
foreign
attack,
replaced
byto
revolutionaries.
Vladimir
Lenin
tried
to
Mussolini
who
came
and
the
dominate
Fascist
Japanese
Party
come
society.
to
power.
Japanese
They
Versailles.
Hatred
of
the
treaty
(and
War
Guilt
Clause)
and propaganda to take total control over every aspect
modernize
Russia
before
Joseph
Stalin
created
athe
totalitarian
militarism
would
create
lead
a
totalitarian
to
war
with
society.
Europe
and
the
and enormous
economic
troubles
leads
to
riseUSA.
of
of their people’s public
and
private
lives.
state.
Adolf Hitler.
Rise of Nationalism after world war I
The Russian Revolution
• a feudal society (farmer based)
• Russian Czar not able to adapt to a
changing world
• poor leadership and extreme hardships
during the First World War
• bloody death of the royal family
• symbol of hope for the poor people of
the world as the Russians started
democratic reforms
• seen as a threat by Western leaders
•betrayed by leaders seeking power who
turned Russia into a totalitarian society
Rise of Russian Nationalism
Czar Alexander II (1855-81)
• abolished serfdom on March
3, 1881, and introduced many
reforms
• he was assassinated in 1881
Czar Alexander III (1881-94)
• more police and new laws
• he also undid many of the
reforms that his father had
introduced
Czar Nicholas II (1894-1917)
• disastrous military leader
• abdicating in 1917, he was
imprisoned by the Red Army
• he and his family were killed
in the Ural Mountains
For over 300
years the
Romanov family
ruled Russia.
In 1917, the rule
of the family
came to a violent
end.
Russia struggled to find a
balance between the desire to
industrialize and the
reality of having a country
that was mostly made up of
peasant farmers.
By 1900, a small
The Russian
Revolution
Russian Revolution and Rise of
Fascism
1. Two Revolutions in Russia
A. March 1917, political, economic,
and social conditions in Russia
started a revolution that
overthrew the Czar
The end of the Russian Monarchy
In 1917, the
Czar abdicated.
Democracy
came to Russia.
The Russians
set up Soviets –
the local
branches of
workers parties.
Lenin’s Bolshevik
party changed its
name to
Communists – after
Karl Marx’s
classless society.
In November
1917 Lenin and
the Bolsheviks
took over
power in
Russia.
Lenin was a dynamic
leader.
Democracy spread…at
first…
Lenin takes control of Russia
1.
Two Revolutions in Russia
A. March 1917, political, economic, and social conditions in
Russia started a revolution that overthrew the Czar
B. Bolsheviks (Communists – led by
Lenin) seized power in OCtober
1917
i. ended private ownership of land
ii. gave land to peasants
iii. gave workers control of factories
and mines
iv. ended Russia’s involvement in
World War I
When Russia withdrew from World War I, a
civil war broke out.
The Revolution was opposed by
some Russians (they became
known as “White Russians”)
A Civil War devastated Russia
Over 15
million
Russians
die during
the Civil
War…
Russia
would
have a
difficult
time
trusting
the Allies
again…
The Russians at
first think that
their Revolution
would be welcomed
by the American
American
and Allied
and French
people
(who hadforces
also had
invade and
successful
occupy
revolutions
for
much
of
freedom
and
Russia
democracy)
The Russians write letters of goodwill to the Americans…
who immediately send troops into Russia to put down the Revolution…
How did Western Nations respond to the Russian Revolution?
In the USA
discrimination
white men voted
rich industrialists owned
everything
sharecropping
Western leaders
sent their
In Russiaarmies
into Russia to
equality
overthrow the
everyone voted
revolution
and
restore
the given
Czar.
workers were
control of factories
peasants were given land
The
Russian
Revolution
mightbybecome
dangerous
Western
countries
were controlled
wealthy a
leaders
who
example
tothat
the
in had
theaswest.
saw the
new ideas
thepoor
Russians
dangerous.
Russia fights Civil War and is attacked
by Western Powers
1.
Two Revolutions in Russia
A. March 1917, political, economic, and social conditions in Russia
started a revolution that overthrew the Czar
B. Bolsheviks (Communists – led by Lenin) seized
power in October 1917
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
ended private ownership of land
gave land to peasants
gave workers control of factories and mines
ended Russia’s involvement in World War I
C. three year civil war between the
Communist Red Army and the Whites,
people who were loyal to Czar
The Revolution and Civil
War left Russia poor and
destroyed.
To improve the economy,
Lenin started the NEW
ECONOMIC POLICY
But,
what
about
Russia?
By 1900, Europe enjoyed the benefits of the Industrial Revolution.
The Industrial Revolution brought about
huge changes in society. Philosophers
tried to explain the way that the world
had changed. The most influential
thinker of the times was a German named
Karl Marx...
Lenin tries to modernize Russia
Much of the success
of the Russian
Revolution comes
from the work of
Lenin.
He is charismatic and
dynamic.
He realizes that the
proletariat society does
not exist in feudal Russia.
A classless society could
only exist once the
urbanized working class
took control of Russia.
But Russia had never been
through a capitalist phase.
So Lenin introduces the
NEW ECONOMIC POLICY,
making the state develop a
kind of capitalist society.
2. From Lenin to Stalin
A Under Lenin, the Communist Party used
the army and secret police to enforce its
will. In economics, Lenin mixed capitalist
and socialist ideas.
Lenin is followed by Joseph Stalin.
Stalin creates a totalitarian
society in Russia.
2. From Lenin to Stalin
A Under Lenin, the Communist Party used
the army and secret police to enforce its
will. In economics, Lenin mixed capitalist
and socialist ideas.
B. After Lenin died, Joseph Stalin took over
i.
tried to make USSR a modern industrial state
farm land was taken away
Russia
had
missed the
by the
government
and
Capitalist
phase
peasants
forced
to work on
huge collectivized farms
Stalin tried to skip Capitalist
phase by allowing the state
to develop the Russian
economy
eventually the state would
“hand over” control of the
economy to the “dictatorship
of the proletariat”…
Stalin introduced 5-yearhuge factories were built
plans for industrial and
with millions of people
agricultural improvements
being encouraged to work
to make the state stronger
2. From Lenin to Stalin
A Under Lenin, the Communist Party used
the army and secret police to enforce its
will. In economics, Lenin mixed capitalist
and socialist ideas.
B. After Lenin died, Joseph Stalin took over
i. tried to make USSR a modern industrial state
ii. all economic and agricultural activity under
government control
iii. 5-year-plans to increase production
Stalin’s Great Purge
In 1934 Stalin targeted
his enemies for
elimination.
By 1939 Stalin had
complete control of the
country.
Historians estimate that
Stalin was responsible for
between 8-13 million
Russians.
2. From Lenin to Stalin
A Under Lenin, the Communist Party used
the army and secret police to enforce its
will. In economics, Lenin mixed capitalist
and socialist ideas.
B. After Lenin died, Joseph Stalin took over
i. tried to make USSR a modern industrial state
ii. all economic and agricultural activity under
government control
iii. 5-year-plans to increase production
C. In 1934 Stalin started terror - Great
Purge (4 million people were purged and
almost 800,000 were executed).
How did Stalin maintain control over the USSR?
Secret police
Propaganda
Censorship
Terror
• arrested
opposition
• government
controlled all
media
• against the law
to criticize
• Great Purge
• spied on people
• even family
members spied
• encouraged
obedience to
the state
• government
controlled
everything
people heard,
saw, or read
• constant fear
of midnight
“knock on the
door”
• sent to labor
camps - gulags
3. Life in a Totalitarian State
A. Stalin used secret police,
propaganda, censorship, and terror
to establish a totalitarian state.
B. Leaders were Communist Party
members, industrial managers,
military, scientists, and some artists
and writers.
“Literature, the cinema, the arts are levers in the hands of
the proletariat which must be used to show the masses
positive models of initiative and heroic labor.”
Socialist
Realism
3. Life in a Totalitarian State
A. Stalin used secret police,
propaganda, censorship, and terror
to establish a totalitarian state.
B. Leaders were Communist Party
members, industrial managers,
military, scientists, and some artists
and writers.
C. Artists and writers forced to use
“socialist realism” (tried show Soviet
life in a positive way).
While the Russians
struggled to adapt to the
changes that the ending
of their monarchy
brought, the rest of the
world also struggled to
understand what had
After World War I, people
everywhere questioned old
ideas about religion,
leadership, and even
science.
Albert Einstein
develops the Theory
like Sigmund
ofMen
Relativity
which
Freud
new
upsetsdeveloped
scientific
ideas about
what
beliefs
held since
motivated
people.
Isaac Newton.
4. A Culture in Conflict
A. new ideas and science changed ideas
about the world
i. atomic theory
ii. theory of relativity
iii. psychoanalysis
4. A Culture in Conflict
A. new ideas and science changed ideas
about the world
i. atomic theory
ii. theory of relativity
iii. psychoanalysis
B. new literature and the arts lead to a
sense of uncertainty
After women won the right to vote in Russia, western
nations that claimed to be democratic finally were
forced to give women the vote.
4. A Culture in Conflict
A. new ideas and science changed ideas
about the world
i. atomic theory
ii. theory of relativity
iii. psychoanalysis
B. new trends in literature and the arts
contributed to a sense of
uncertainty
C. women made progress in education
and politics but still lagged behind
men in career opportunities and pay
International
Relations
The War to End
All Wars ended
on November 11,
1918
Europe
Over 21
millionwas left to wonder what had Over 8,500,000
happened…
men returned
men died
injured
Over 65 million
The war
men
cost
were
over
mobilized…
$31,000,000,000
Theresomeone
were 37,500,000
had to pay…the
casualties…
question was who…
Despair
Atheism
Suicide
Distrust of government
NEVER AGAIN
Frustration
Hopelessness
Anger
Leadership failure
Futility
Nihilism
5.
The Western Democracies
A. after World War I diplomats worked
hard to make:
i. treaties that ended war
The League of Nations
After World War I,
President Woodrow
Wilson proposed the
14 Points for peace.
One of Wilson’s ideas
was to create a
League of Nations.
The League excluded
Germany and Russia.
Most importantly,
Americans did not
seem sure that the
League was a good
idea.
The U.S. Senate decided
to reject Wilson’s plans
for the League.
The USA never joined…
5.
The Western Democracies
A. after World War I diplomats worked
hard to make:
i. treaties that ended war
ii. cooperation in the League of
Nations
5.
The Western Democracies
A. after World War I diplomats worked
hard to make:
i. treaties that ended war
ii. cooperation in the League of
Nations
B. leading democratic powers faced
difficult political and economic
challenges at home and abroad
The Great Depression begins
Black Tuesday
Hoovervilles
5.
The Western Democracies
A. after World War I diplomats worked
hard to make:
i. treaties that ended war
ii. cooperation in the League of
Nations
B. leading democratic powers faced
difficult political and economic
challenges at home and abroad
C. the Great Depression created
financial turmoil and widespread
suffering throughout the
industrialized world
Rise of Fascist Italy
• preached extreme nationalism
• nations must struggle – peaceful nations
were doomed
• no clearly defined program for
improvement
• citizens lose individual rights
• state is supreme
Italians were furious that they were not given more land
after World War I.
They also feared a Communist Revolution like Russia.
Many were attracted to the idea of a strong leader.
Benito Mussolini
6. Fascism in Italy
A. Benito Mussolini and his Fascist
Party took advantage of political and
economic unrest to seize power in
the 1920s.
Mussolini’s Aggression
6. Fascism in Italy
A. Benito Mussolini and his Fascist
Party took advantage of political and
economic unrest to seize power in
the 1920s.
B. Fascism was rooted in extreme
nationalism and glorified action,
violence, discipline, and loyalty to
the state.
C. As Il Duce, Mussolini established the
first totalitarian state which served
as a model for others.
Rise of Adolf Hitler
7. Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany
A. Weimer Republic weakened by disunity
and inflation. Many blamed the
government for the hated treaty of
Versailles
Adolf Hitler
7. Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany
A. Weimer Republic weakened by disunity
and inflation. Many blamed the
government for the hated treaty of
Versailles
B. Hitler appealed to extreme nationalism,
anti-Semitism, anti-communism, and
resentment of the Treaty of Versailles
Hitler’s Rise to Dictator
• in 1933 Hitler became
Chancellor of Germany (Weimer
Republic)
• he did not have a majority
• he called for new elections
• six days before the elections,
the Nazis burned down the
Reichstag and blamed Communists
• Hitler won a small majority
and declared a one-party state
7. Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany
A. Weimer Republic weakened by disunity
and inflation. Many blamed the
government for the hated treaty of
Versailles
B. Hitler appealed to extreme nationalism,
anti-Semitism, anti-communism, and
resentment of the Treaty of Versailles
C. Hitler and the Nazis used terror,
repression, and one party rule to create
a totalitarian society
7. Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany
A. Weimer Republic weakened by disunity
and inflation. Many blamed the
government for the hated treaty of
Versailles
B. Hitler appealed to extreme nationalism,
anti-Semitism, anti-communism, and
resentment of the Treaty of Versailles
C. Hitler and the Nazis used terror,
repression, and one party rule to create
a totalitarian society
D. Economic problems and ethnic tensions
in Eastern Europe helped fascist
dictators gain power there

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