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What’s in that cloud anyway?
A quick trip inside the internet cloud
Catherine Seo
Information Research & Technology
Cambridge College
What Is the Internet?
• A network of networks, joining many
government, university and private
computers together and providing
an infrastructure for the use of E-mail, bulletin
boards, file archives, hypertext documents,
databases and other computational resources
• The vast collection of computer networks which form
and act as a single huge network for transport of
data and messages across distances which can be
anywhere from the same office to anywhere in the
world.
Written by William F. Slater, III 1996
President of the Chicago Chapter of the Internet Society
Copyright 2002, William F. Slater, III, Chicago, IL, USA
What is the Internet?
• The largest network of networks in the
world.
• Uses TCP/IP protocols and packet
switching .
• Runs on any communications substrate.
From Dr. Vinton Cerf,
Co-Creator of TCP/IP
A Brief Summary of the Evolution of the Internet
1995
1945
First Vast
Computer
Network
Silicon Envisioned
Chip
A
1962
Mathematical 1958
Theory of
Communication
Memex
1948
Conceived
Packet
Switching
Invented
1964
1945
Copyright 2002, William F. Slater, III, Chicago, IL, USA
Hypertext
Invented
1965
TCP/IP
Created
ARPANET
1972
1969
Mosaic
Created
WWW
Internet Created
1993
Named
1989
and
Goes
TCP/IP
1984
Age of
eCommerce
Begins
1995
Historical Context
• Invented in the late 50’s, Bob Taylor, JCR
Licklider, Ivan Sutherland, Larry Roberts, Alan
Kay et al
• Big ideas: packet switching, self contained
messages
• The Internet got started as the Arpanet
• inherently decentralized
• designed to survive atomic attack
• designed to scale in a biological manner
Out of the Pentagon, Into the Bean Bag Chairs
• 1969 -The Mansfield amendment changed the focus
• ARPA -> DARPA
• everyone heads for the exits, including
• Bob Taylor
• Alan Kay
• and the result is Xerox PARC
• Taylor was hired to start a Computer Science Lab
• Mission was to create an “architecture of information”
Xerox PARC was responsible for many firsts…
• PC’s
• Graphical user interfaces (GUI)
• Laser printing
• Object oriented programming
• Client/server
• email
• and….networking, specifically the ethernet
Meanwhile…
• Vint Cerf & Bob Kahn design the TCP protocol
on top of the existing IP
• IP - Internetwork Protocol - how to send packets
across networks, regardless of hardware and
operating system incompatibilities
• TCP - Transmission Control Protocol - how to break
up logical messages into packets and put them back
together at the other end on top of IP
The combination of their efforts was key…
• An elegant decentralized network interface Ethernet
• An elegant decentralized protocol - IP
• An elegant decentralized higher protocol – TCP
• Together they form the foundation of the Internet
• The year is 1973
Open Standards Accelerate Growth & Acceptance
• ARPANET continued to grow throughout the 70’s
• Researchers and Academics began to use the network
• 1976 - Queen Elizabeth goes online with the first royal
email message.
• In 1985 the National Science Foundation launched a
program to establish access across the U.S.
• In 1989 ARPANET was shut down by Defense
Communications Industry due to limited funding and
support from the military
Bring on the applications
• Email is the first killer app, and was added right away
• SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
• POP3 - Post Office Protocol v3
• Other document transfers were invented over time:
• FTP - File Transfer Protocol
• NNTP (Netnews) - threaded discussions
• Gopher - text search and archive
• Telnet- allows a user to “log-in” to a remote computer
• and many more
Now for the World Wide Web
• The Internet was in common use for scientists and
academics and Unix geeks for 20+ years
• Tim Berners-Lee wanted to send formatted text with
hyperlinks (1989)
• Thus was born the next higher protocol - HTTP: the
Hypertext Transport Protocol
• But the new documents needed a description to be
properly displayed with links - and thus we have HTML
- the Hypertext Markup Language
Power to the people
• 1992 - The first audio and video broadcasts take place over the "MBONE."
More than 1,000,000 hosts are part of the Internet.
Let there be browsers HTML display applications that use HTTP
to send and receive stuff
• 1993 - Mosaic, the first graphical user interface to the WWW developed by
Marc Andreessen and NCSA and the University of Illinois becomes available
• Traffic on the Internet expands at a 341,634% annual growth rate.
To God’s ears…
• 1995 - NSFNET reverts back to a research project,
leaving the Internet in commercial hands. The Web
now comprises the bulk of Internet traffic. The
Vatican launches www.vatican.va.
• James Gosling and a team of programmers at Sun
Microsystems release an Internet programming
language called Java, which radically alters the way
applications and information can be
retrieved,displayed, and used over the Internet.
Grow, growing, grooooooowing…
• Users in
almost 200
countries
around the
world are
now
connected
to the
Internet.
Technology Trends
Computing
power will
double in
power
and halve
in price
every 18
months
Moore’s Law
Price of Computing
Internet Growth Trends
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1977: 111 hosts on Internet
1981: 213 hosts
1983: 562 hosts
1984: 1,000 hosts
1986: 5,000 hosts
1987: 10,000 hosts
1989: 100,000 hosts
1992: 1,000,000 hosts
2001: 150 – 175 million hosts
2002: over 200 million hosts
By 2010, about 80% of the planet will be on the
Internet
March 2001
>Over 115 Million Hosts
(As of Jan. 2001)
>Over 407 Million Users
(As of Nov. 2000)
>218 of 246 Countries
(As of Jan. 2000)
>31 Million Domain Names
>About 100 TB of Data
Dr. Vint Cerf presents in Chicago/March 2001
Digital Photo March 2001 by William F. Slater, III, Chicago, IL, USA
By September 2002
The Internet Reached Two
Important Milestones:
Netsizer.com – from Telcordia
Not-so-famous last words…
•"I think there is a world
market for maybe five
computers.“
~Thomas Watson, Chairman of IBM, 1943
And now…
• The real question is how
to harness this
expansive resource to
find exactly what you are
looking for…
• Ladies and gentlemen!
•Welcome to the TREASURE HUNT!
World Wide Web
Questions?

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