What’s in that cloud anyway? A quick trip inside the internet cloud Catherine Seo Information Research & Technology Cambridge College What Is the Internet? • A network of networks, joining many government, university and private computers together and providing an infrastructure for the use of E-mail, bulletin boards, file archives, hypertext documents, databases and other computational resources • The vast collection of computer networks which form and act as a single huge network for transport of data and messages across distances which can be anywhere from the same office to anywhere in the world. Written by William F. Slater, III 1996 President of the Chicago Chapter of the Internet Society Copyright 2002, William F. Slater, III, Chicago, IL, USA What is the Internet? • The largest network of networks in the world. • Uses TCP/IP protocols and packet switching . • Runs on any communications substrate. From Dr. Vinton Cerf, Co-Creator of TCP/IP A Brief Summary of the Evolution of the Internet 1995 1945 First Vast Computer Network Silicon Envisioned Chip A 1962 Mathematical 1958 Theory of Communication Memex 1948 Conceived Packet Switching Invented 1964 1945 Copyright 2002, William F. Slater, III, Chicago, IL, USA Hypertext Invented 1965 TCP/IP Created ARPANET 1972 1969 Mosaic Created WWW Internet Created 1993 Named 1989 and Goes TCP/IP 1984 Age of eCommerce Begins 1995 Historical Context • Invented in the late 50’s, Bob Taylor, JCR Licklider, Ivan Sutherland, Larry Roberts, Alan Kay et al • Big ideas: packet switching, self contained messages • The Internet got started as the Arpanet • inherently decentralized • designed to survive atomic attack • designed to scale in a biological manner Out of the Pentagon, Into the Bean Bag Chairs • 1969 -The Mansfield amendment changed the focus • ARPA -> DARPA • everyone heads for the exits, including • Bob Taylor • Alan Kay • and the result is Xerox PARC • Taylor was hired to start a Computer Science Lab • Mission was to create an “architecture of information” Xerox PARC was responsible for many firsts… • PC’s • Graphical user interfaces (GUI) • Laser printing • Object oriented programming • Client/server • email • and….networking, specifically the ethernet Meanwhile… • Vint Cerf & Bob Kahn design the TCP protocol on top of the existing IP • IP - Internetwork Protocol - how to send packets across networks, regardless of hardware and operating system incompatibilities • TCP - Transmission Control Protocol - how to break up logical messages into packets and put them back together at the other end on top of IP The combination of their efforts was key… • An elegant decentralized network interface Ethernet • An elegant decentralized protocol - IP • An elegant decentralized higher protocol – TCP • Together they form the foundation of the Internet • The year is 1973 Open Standards Accelerate Growth & Acceptance • ARPANET continued to grow throughout the 70’s • Researchers and Academics began to use the network • 1976 - Queen Elizabeth goes online with the first royal email message. • In 1985 the National Science Foundation launched a program to establish access across the U.S. • In 1989 ARPANET was shut down by Defense Communications Industry due to limited funding and support from the military Bring on the applications • Email is the first killer app, and was added right away • SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol • POP3 - Post Office Protocol v3 • Other document transfers were invented over time: • FTP - File Transfer Protocol • NNTP (Netnews) - threaded discussions • Gopher - text search and archive • Telnet- allows a user to “log-in” to a remote computer • and many more Now for the World Wide Web • The Internet was in common use for scientists and academics and Unix geeks for 20+ years • Tim Berners-Lee wanted to send formatted text with hyperlinks (1989) • Thus was born the next higher protocol - HTTP: the Hypertext Transport Protocol • But the new documents needed a description to be properly displayed with links - and thus we have HTML - the Hypertext Markup Language Power to the people • 1992 - The first audio and video broadcasts take place over the "MBONE." More than 1,000,000 hosts are part of the Internet. Let there be browsers HTML display applications that use HTTP to send and receive stuff • 1993 - Mosaic, the first graphical user interface to the WWW developed by Marc Andreessen and NCSA and the University of Illinois becomes available • Traffic on the Internet expands at a 341,634% annual growth rate. To God’s ears… • 1995 - NSFNET reverts back to a research project, leaving the Internet in commercial hands. The Web now comprises the bulk of Internet traffic. The Vatican launches www.vatican.va. • James Gosling and a team of programmers at Sun Microsystems release an Internet programming language called Java, which radically alters the way applications and information can be retrieved,displayed, and used over the Internet. Grow, growing, grooooooowing… • Users in almost 200 countries around the world are now connected to the Internet. Technology Trends Computing power will double in power and halve in price every 18 months Moore’s Law Price of Computing Internet Growth Trends • • • • • • • • • • • 1977: 111 hosts on Internet 1981: 213 hosts 1983: 562 hosts 1984: 1,000 hosts 1986: 5,000 hosts 1987: 10,000 hosts 1989: 100,000 hosts 1992: 1,000,000 hosts 2001: 150 – 175 million hosts 2002: over 200 million hosts By 2010, about 80% of the planet will be on the Internet March 2001 >Over 115 Million Hosts (As of Jan. 2001) >Over 407 Million Users (As of Nov. 2000) >218 of 246 Countries (As of Jan. 2000) >31 Million Domain Names >About 100 TB of Data Dr. Vint Cerf presents in Chicago/March 2001 Digital Photo March 2001 by William F. Slater, III, Chicago, IL, USA By September 2002 The Internet Reached Two Important Milestones: Netsizer.com – from Telcordia Not-so-famous last words… •"I think there is a world market for maybe five computers.“ ~Thomas Watson, Chairman of IBM, 1943 And now… • The real question is how to harness this expansive resource to find exactly what you are looking for… • Ladies and gentlemen! •Welcome to the TREASURE HUNT! World Wide Web Questions?