CEEA 2012 Workshop 2-1A - EGAD Project

Report
Workshop 1A:
Introduction to continuous program
improvement processes
Susan McCahan
Peter Wolf
Vice-Dean, Undergraduate
Director
Faculty of Applied Science
University of Toronto
Centre for Open Learning &
Educational Support
University of Guelph
Brian Frank (project coordinator), Queen’s University
Susan McCahan, University of Toronto
Lata Narayanan, Concordia University
Nasser Saleh, Queen’s University
Nariman Sepehri, University of Manitoba
Peter Ostafichuck, University of British Columbia
K. Christopher Watts, Dalhousie University
Peter Wolf, University of Guelph
Workshop Outcomes:
This introductory workshop presents an overview of continuous program
improvement processes as required by CEAB to demonstrate that engineering
program graduates possess twelve key attributes. It will place CEAB's graduate
attributes in the context of other expectations by national and international
organizations, and include topics such as creating a process for assessment, creating
indicators, mapping attributes to the curriculum, assessing students, and using data
to improve the program. It will include an overview of approaches taken by some
Canadian engineering programs and describe available resources.
This workshop targets participants who are looking for an overview of
graduate attribute assessment. This workshop will be similar to the EGAD
workshops run at CEEA 2010 and 2011, and those conducted by request for
engineering programs.
You should be able to
• Describe a continuous curriculum improvement process
• Utilize the elements of a continuous improvement process to
• Begin to develop an action plan
• Implement continuous improvement
2
Agenda
1 Program Evaluation: Getting Started
2 Mapping the Curriculum
3 Identifying and collecting
data on student learning
4 Analyzing and Interpreting the Data
5 Data-Informed Curriculum Improvement:
Setting Priorities and Planning for Change
3
Background




Accreditation bodies in most industrialized countries use
outcomes-based assessment to demonstrate their students'
capabilities.
Washington Accord: allows substantial equivalency of graduates
from Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, Republic of Ireland, New
Zealand, South Africa, United Kingdom, and United States,
Japan, Singapore, Korea, and Chinese Taipei
Discussions by CEAB and National Council of Deans of
Engineering and Applied Science (NCDEAS) led to graduate
attribute expectations in 2008
Engineering Graduate Attribute Development (EGAD)
project sponsored by NCDEAS formed by representatives from
those schools, started Jan 2011
http://egad.engineering.queensu.ca/
5
1. Outcomes-based curriculum development is a process of the continuous
improvement of sustainable practices
2. Outcomes achievement is a responsibility shared by faculty and students
3. There is a culture of autonomy and academic freedom within courses and
curriculum in higher education
4. A scholarly approach to curriculum development includes processes that are
faculty-driven, data-informed and literature-supported. The process is
further supported by a scholarly approach to analysis, application, teaching
and assessment.
6
Grad attributes process is analogous to a
research project on your curriculum.
• Develop research questions:
– What do you want to know about your students’
learning?
• What methods will you use to investigate these
questions?
• How will the data inform you?
• How will you make use of the information?
7
Curriculum Assessment Process
5. Data-informed curriculum improvement:
Setting priorities and planning for change
1. Program
Evaluation:
4. Analyzing
and Interpreting
the data
Stakeholder input
3. Identifying and Collecting Data
Defining purpose
and indicators
2. Mapping
the Curriculum
8
Kirkpatrick’s Four Levels of Evaluation
• 360 degree data from various
stakeholders, collected over time
•
•
•
qualitative, empirical & quantitative
data
map the curriculum
consider increasing levels of
sophistication of attributes
achievement through programme
years, co- & extra-curricular
Level 4 - Results
Level 3 –
• Use multiple indicators
• Ensure administrative
faculty &
Behavior
student engagement & related
resources - analysis, interpretation &
Level 2 –
action
Learning
Level 1 –
Reaction
Key Question: Did the students achieve desired outcomes of
the programme of study?
Timing: Usually done 3 months – 2 years after learning
experience
Key Question: Are the newly acquired skills, knowledge, or
attitude being used by the learner after the learning event is
completed?
Timing: Usually done 1 month – 3 months after learning
Key Question: Did the students achieve the desired learning
objective(s)?
Timing: Usually done immediately or soon after learning
Key Question: What was the student reaction to the
learning environment?
Timing: Usually done immediately or soon after the learning
event(s)
Kirkpatrick, D. (1994). Evaluating Training Programs: The Four Levels. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler
Sample Process Framework
CEAB Attributes
SoE Attributes
Define attributes, establish thresholds and targets and
determine indicators
Faculty Workshops /
Retreats
Articulate where attributes will be fostered and/or
embedded in the curriculum (cumulative experience in 4th
year capstone design course)
Faculty Retreats /
Curriculum Committee
Course Progression Maps
Attribute Maps
Feedback on achievement of Attributes
Curriculum Assessment (faculty, alumni, employers,
students, etc.): SWOT
Curriculum
Development Plan
CEAB Accreditation
Report
1 Program Evaluation: Getting Started
2 Mapping the Curriculum
3 Identifying and collecting
data on student learning
4 Analyzing and Interpreting the Data
5 Data-Informed Curriculum Improvement:
Setting Priorities and Planning for Change
11
http://egad.engineering.queensu.ca/
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http://egad.engineering.queensu.ca/
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http://egad.engineering.queensu.ca/
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What Are Indicators?
Descriptors of what students must do to be considered competent
in an attribute; the measurable & pre-determined standards
used to evaluate curriculum
Lifelong learning
An ability to identify and address their own educational needs in a changing
world in ways sufficient to maintain their competence and to allow them to
contribute to the advancement of knowledge
Can this be directly
measured?
Would multiple
assessors be consistent?
Would assessments
be meaningful?
Probably not, so more specific measurable indicators are needed.
This allows the program to decide what is important
15
Indicators
Graduate
attribute
Lifelong learning
An ability to identify and address their own educational needs in a changing
world in ways sufficient to maintain their competence and to allow them to
contribute to the advancement of knowledge
The student:
Critically evaluates information
for authority, currency &
objectivity when referencing
literature
Identifies gaps in knowledge and
develops a plan to address
Describes the types of
literature of their field
& how it is produced
Uses information ethically &
legally to accomplish
a specific purpose
Indicators
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Investigation:
An ability to conduct investigations of complex problems by
methods that include appropriate experiments, analysis and
interpretation of data, and synthesis of information in order to
reach valid conclusions
Sample Indicators
Global Outcomes
Indicators
Demonstrate the ability to Lower level
define a problem
 Describe how to define a problem for purposes of investigation
 Explain how to find previous work
Graduating level
 State the problem, its scope and importance
 Describe the previous work
 State the objective of the work
Demonstrate the ability to Lower level
devise and execute a plan  Describe standard tests (experiments) and methods for information collection
to solve a problem
Graduating level
 Select a set of tests to be conducted
 Select, plan and apply the methods for collecting the information
 Identify limitations of the tests and methods used and their impact on the
results.
Demonstrate the ability to  Analyze the results
use critical analysis to
 Formulate the conclusions
reach valid conclusions
 Validate conclusions by induction or deduction
supported by the results
 Compare conclusions with previous work
of the plan
 Characterize the limitations and implications of the conclusions
Taxonomies
• Taxonomy: a classification of learning objectives
• Used to categorize the type and depth of learning
• Helpful (necessary?) for writing meaningful indicators
• Helpful for writing effective assignments and exams
• Many examples available
–
–
–
–
–
–
EGAD website
EC2000, ABET 2009
UK-SPEC, Engineering Subject Centre Guide
Engineers Australia
CDIO Syllabus
...
18
Based on: Tyler, R. (1949) Basic principles of curriculum and instruction (University of Chicago Press, Chicago).
Instructional Alignment
Course - agreement between
objectives, activities & assessments
Curriculum - the degree to which the
student experience builds upon
previously developed attributes
Learning
Activities
Indicators /
Outcomes
Learning
Assessments
Domains of Learning
(Bloom, B. S., Engelhart, M. D., Furst, E. J., Hill,
W. H., & Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of
educational objectives: the classification of
educational goals; Handbook I: Cognitive Domain
New York, Longmans, Green, 1956. )
Cognitive /
Knowledge
Psychomotor
/ Physical
Skills
Affective /
Habits of
Mind
knowledge & development of
intellectual skills
.
Anderson, L. & Krathwohl, D. A. (2001) Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational
Objectives New York: Longman
Cognitive Domain
physical movement, coordination
& use of motor skills
Simpson, E.J. (1972) The Classification of Educational Objectives in the Psychomotor Domain Washington DC: Gryphon House
Psychomotor Domain
Organize &
Conceptualize
Value
Respond
Receive
Krathwohl, D. R., Bloom, B. S., & Masia, B. B. (1973). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, the Classification of Educational Goals.
Handbook II: Affective Domain. New York: David McKay Co., Inc.
Emotions-based, including values,
motivations, attitudes & habits of
mind
Characterize
by Value
Affective Domain
Domains of Learning
(Bloom, B. S., Engelhart, M. D., Furst, E. J., Hill,
W. H., & Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of
educational objectives: the classification of
educational goals; Handbook I: Cognitive Domain
New York, Longmans, Green, 1956. )
Knowledge
Physical
Skills
Curriculum
‘Sweet Spot’
Habits of
Mind
Developing Indicators
Interactive Nature of Significant Learning
Structure of Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO)
describes levels of increasing complexity in student's
understanding of subjects
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Pre-structural
Uni-structural
Multi-structural
Relational
Extended abstract
Proposed by: John B. Biggs &K. Collis.
Atherton, J. S. (2005) Learning and Teaching: SOLO taxonomy
From “A Self-Directed Guide to Designing Courses for Significant Learning” L. Dee Fink, PhD.
http://www.deefinkandassociates.com/GuidetoCourseDesignAug05.pdf
http://egad.engineering.queensu.ca/
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27
28
Curriculum Mapping
Course
Progression
Graduate
Attributes
courses
thru
curriculum
match outcomes
to courses that
foster them
Course Progression Maps
Purpose:
• to create a visual representation of student progress
through curricula
• to explore curriculum flow, coherence, and the balance of
required and elective courses for the entirety of the
degree program
Data collected from:
• Calendars
• Course outlines
• Curriculum committees
PSYC
100
PSYC
200
PSYC
300
http://vue.tufts.edu
Programme Attributes Map
Goal: To match programme outcomes with
individual courses that intentionally foster the
development of selected outcomes.
Data collected from:
• Faculty
• Course outlines
• Curriculum committees
Collaborative Mapping Process
Instructor
Input
Colleague
Review
Analysis &
Interpretation
Especially useful for those whose courses serve as co-or pre-requisites
Identify patterns, gaps, overlaps & redundancies
Use SWOT (or other) to explore attribute development; instructional
and assessment strengths/misalignments; skill integration etc.
Develop
Action Plan
Implement
Action Plan
Outline a timetable for implementing change and establish a
committee and roles to implement the plan
Enhance curriculum alignment so that materials, instruction and
assessment further support the intended learning
Seek opportunities to integrate & cluster attribute development
Evaluate
Results
Add/remove or adaprt resources, learning activities & assessment
http://egad.engineering.queensu.ca/?page_id=28#maincontent
Course Survey:
•
Instructional methods used
•
Assessment approaches for students
•
Which graduate attribute, if any, is intentionally
fostered in this course? At what level of
sophistication?
•
How is each attribute taught and/or assessed?
•
How are the marks distributed over the semester?
34
35
Methods
M
W
or
k
m
ed
ia
n
ed
ia
Pr
es
en
ta
tio
M
Le
ct
ur
e
as
s
us
W
rit
sio
in
ns
g
/G
ro
up
La
W
or
bo
k
ra
to
ry
/T
ut
or
ia
l
ul
ti-
al
Di
sc
In
-c
l
Re
ad
in
g
Re
Se
se
m
Si
in
ar
a
m
ch
r:
ul
Fa
at
io
ce
n/
-to
R
-fa
ol
ece
Pl
ay
in
g/
G
am
e
In
fo
rm
De
ba
te
(W
eb
CT
)
G
ro
up
ac
kb
oa
rd
Fo
rm
al
Bl
Frequency
Outcome: Research Methods –
Research Methods - Instructional Approaches
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
36Method
Written
Assignment ( ?
5 pages )
Written
Assignment ( >
5 pages )
Test/Quiz/Exam
( ? 25% of Final
Grade )
Test/Quiz/Exam
( > 25% of Final
Grade )
Skills
Demonstration
Project
(Individual)
Project (Group)
Participation (Inclass)
Oral
Presentation
(Individual)
Oral
Presentation
(Group)
Graphics
(Maps, Plans,
Schematics,
Assessed
Research
Methods
Frequency
Outcome: Research Methods
Research Methods - Assessment
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Outcomes Development
45
40
Response (Count)
35
30
25
20
Not Taught / Not Assessed
Not Taught / Assessed
15
Taught / Not Assessed
10
Taught / Assessed
5
0
37
Graduate Attributes Assessment

It is the program being assessed, not the
students


Part of a continual improvement process
Not required to assess every student



Graduate Attributes is not a “minimum path”
assessment
Not required to track individual students
Can use sampling to gather representative data

Not required to assess in every course

Not required to assess every year
38
Curriculum Mapping
Issues & Challenges
Discussion
What are the issues challenges you have
faced, think you will face, when mapping
attributes to courses?
•
•
Curriculum Mapping: Issues & Challenges
• Attributes are unclear, need further definition, and/or there is little
group agreement on attribute definition, threshold, target, indicators,
etc
• Faculty feel ‘controlled’ and inhibited from altering courses and
assignments
• Collecting mapping data from courses not within the department
• Misalignment within sections of the same course
• ‘Orphan’ courses may suggest
• Vocal faculty dominate process/not full participation/not inclusive of
TAs &other instructors
• Data collection-related:
– If using a survey approach…
• Low faculty survey completion rate fill out the survey
– If using course outlines
• not accurate
Recommended Practices
Data-informed
Faculty-driven
Student-engaged
Stakeholder-informed
Culture- & context-specific
Rigorous & authentic
Continuous improvement
of sustainable practices
• Resourced & recognized
• Externally facilitated
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
• Continuous
improvement is at
least as important
as ‘reporting’
• Refine the blend of
people, processes
& resources
 Transition
requires
investment
 Keeping
momentum
• Mistakes will
happen
http://egad.engineering.queensu.ca/
Evaluation Method
Stakeholders
Frequency
Exit focus group Lunch
Graduating
Students
Annual





Bi-Annual

Student grades &
Sample work
Course Feedback
Forms
Course Feedback
Forms
Bi-Annual

Focus group lunch
Employers
Tri-Annual






Mapping
Course Outlines
Behavior
Learning
Reaction
Questions /Issues Explored

Student feedback
Results
Describe your most valuable learning experiences?
Comments on other aspects of your Guelph experience: Awards? Student clubs? Academic
support?
Describe your most important/least important learning experiences at Guelph?
What would you drop from the curriculum?
What would you add to the curriculum?
What advice would you have for a new student?
Use of standard undergraduate feedback forms
Is grading across courses consistent in highlighting the successful and unsuccessful
students?
Are there trends in grades by outcomes, topic, level of sophistication, etc.?
Describe in what ways the content and objectives of the program match or do not match
your expectations graduates? What do you look for when hiring?
Based on your experience with graduates employed in your company, how well do our
graduates meet your expectations?
Describe one or more ways in which our program has enhanced our graduates ability to
help your organization fulfill its mission or meet its objectives
Please suggest one or more changes to help us improve the program. What can we do to
better prepare our graduates for employment?
What advice would you give to a recent or soon to be graduate?
Tri-Annual
Course by course & cross curricular learning outcomes
Portfolio will be used as the principal assessment tool – prepare in 4th semester & update
resubmit in last semester


Previous reports &
reviews
Professional
association
Tri-Annual
Retreat
Faculty/Grad
Students
Annual

Review of data collected and development of action plan
Handbook for Curriculum Assessment – dowload at http://www.tss.uoguelph.ca/resources/pdfs/HbonCurriculumAssmt.pdf
Assessment Plan
Triangulation
1. Include opportunities for informal assessment,
students’ self-reports of learning, and even unsolicited
data from placement supervisors or employers
2. Use more than one type of assessment when analyzing
data
3. Value all assessment not just major events
4. Use the data gained from assessment to answer
questions about authentic learning
5. Look at data across time intervals
Assessment Tools
How to measure learning against specific expectations?

Direct measures – directly observable or
measurable assessments of student learning


E.g. Student exams, reports, oral examinations,
portfolios, concept inventories etc.
Indirect measures – opinion or self-reports
of student learning or educational experiences

E.g. grades, surveys, focus group data, graduation
rates, reputation, etc.
45
Why not use grades to assess outcomes?
Student transcript
Electric Circuits I
Electromagnetics I
Signals and Systems I
Electronics I
Electrical Engineering Laboratory
Engineering Communications
Engineering Economics
...
Electrical Design Capstone
78
56
82
71
86
76
88
86
Course grades usually aggregate
assessment of multiple objectives,
and are indirect evidence for
some expectations
How well does the program prepare
students to solve open-ended
problems?
Are students prepared to continue
learning independently after
graduation?
Do students consider the social
and environmental implications of
their work?
What can students do with
knowledge (plug-and-chug vs.
evaluate)?
46
Selecting Assessments

Looking for assessments that are:


Valid: they measure what they are supposed to
measure
Reliable: the results are consistent; the
measurements are the same when repeated with the
same subjects under the same conditions

Capitalize on what you are already doing

Look for “leading indicators”

One approach (not the only!) is with Rubrics
47
Rubrics
Dimensions
(Indicator)
Scale (Level of Mastery)
Not
demonstrated
Marginal
Meets
expectations
Exceeds
expectations
Indicator 1
Descriptor 1a
Descriptor 1b
Descriptor 1c
Descriptor 1d
Indicator 2
Descriptor 2a
Descriptor 2b
Descriptor 2c
Descriptor 2d
Indicator 3
Descriptor 3a
Descriptor 3b
Descriptor 3c
Descriptor 3d
Reduces variations between grades (increase reliability)
Describes clear expectations for both instructor and students
(increase validity)
48
Selecting Assessments

Reminders:




Capitalize on what you are already doing
Do not try to assess in every course
Rubrics can help to increase reliability and
validity
Another approach: embedded questions


Set tests, exams, quizzes, etc. such that specific
questions are linked to specific indicators
Record marks separately by question
49
http://egad.engineering.queensu.ca/
1.
On which Graduate Attributes is programming focused?
2.
Where are the focus attributes being best supported?
3.
Which Graduate Attributes are reported as getting the least
attention?
4.
What program-specific attributes are supported by your
curriculum?
(i.e. attributes not identified by CEAB)
5.
What gaps exist in the program?
6.
How are your students doing?
7.
Where in the program is student development being best
supported?
8. In what areas are students doing less well?
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• Check reliability and validity of data
• Critically think through the analysis
• Refer back to research questions
52
In this module, a series of fictitious, though realistic scenarios are outlined.
Findings from a variety of data sources are presented for each scenario and
indications, judgments and recommendations that might result are discussed. The
approach to curriculum change adopted in each scenario outlines the ways in which
a series of relatively minor changes adopted by many can result in dramatic
improvements to programming, curricular alignment and overall student learning
achievement and satisfaction.
53
Also, not enough information
to inform curriculum change
80% of our students meet or exceed expectations for this
attribute
80%
Investigation
54
How many indicators are enough?
80%
Indicator
#1
Indicator
Indicator
#3
#2
Investigation
Not clear
Gloria Rogers suggests 3-5
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