Sankalp Patel, Michael Kang, James Kelly The EEG (electroencephalogram) uses highly conductive silver electrodes coated with silverchloride and gold cup electrodes to obtain accurate measures of effectiveness, resistance caused by dura mater, cerebrospinal fluid, and skull bone. Monopolar Technique : the use of one active recording electrode placed on area of interest, a reference electrode in an inactive area. Bipolar Technique : the use of two active electrodes on areas of interest. Measures brain waves (graphs voltage over time) through electrodes by using the summation of many action potentials sent by neurons in brain. Alpha Wave- easily produced when quietly sitting with eyes closed. Beta Waves- Most common waves. Produced during mental thought and activity. Theta Waves- More common in children than adults; related to pleasure, drowsiness, and displeasure. Delta Waves- Found during periods of deep sleep. Gamma Waves- Occur with sudden sensory stimuli. These are some other less common waves: Kappa Waves Lambda Waves Mu Waves Psychological Research Neurological Research Medical Research Educational Research and Application Therapeutic Research Occupational Application In Common Medical Practice to assist physicians in diagnosing proper neurological disorders. An EEG can determine changes in brain activity that may be useful in diagnosing brain disorders, especially epilepsy. An EEG may be helpful to confirm, rule out or provide information that helps with management of the following disorders: Epilepsy or other seizure disorder Brain tumor Head injury Brain dysfunction that may have a variety of causes (encephalopathy) Inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) Stroke Sleep disorders Memory impairment Richard Caton (1875) –localization of sensory functions with monkeys and rabbits Hans Berger (1924) – first EEG recording done on humans described alpha wave rhythm and its suppression compared to beta waves acknowledged “alpha blockade” when subject opens eyes William Grey Walter – influenced by Pavlov and Berger, further developed EEG to discover delta waves during sleep (1937) and theta waves (1953) The EEG has become a widely used and successful research tool It is a practical candidate that offers valid measurement It contributes objective information that can be easily viewed and measured It is a versatile system that allows for a diverse application of the information it provides: From therapeutic endeavors, and enhancing educational efforts, to offering information and insight that has helped to improve pilots’, conductors’, and drivers’ vigilance performance, as well as strengthening the base of general knowledge in a way that has helped to improve our everyday lives. Thoen, M.D., Dennis. "Electroencephalogram (EEG) and 24hour Ambulatory EEG." Western Neurological Associates. Western Neurological Associates. Web. 9 Mar 2013. <http://www.wna-pc.com/eeg>. Mayo Clinic Staff, . "EEG (electroencephalogram)." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic, 10 Aug 2012. Web. 9 Mar 2013. <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/eeg/MY00296>. Anonymous, . "History: From EEG to QEEG." Research Institue Brainclinics. Research Institute Brainclinics, n.d. Web. 9 Mar 2013. <http://www.brainclinics.com/historyof-the-eeg-and-qeeg>.