If You Are Not Part of the Solution, You Are Part of the Problem -Eldridge Cleaver ACADEMIC INTEGRITY “Confronting the Issues” ICAI 2014 Presented by Jena Henson Session Abstract If you are not part of the solution, you are part of the problem was coined by Eldridge Cleaver in 1969. What a profound idea which is still used today in areas of social change and advocacy. This presentation/roundtable is for students, staff, and administrators to highlight the importance of taking a stand to look at their own institutional academic policies. This presentation is designed to share a case study of one student experience at a large private institution. It should inspire others to take action to discover the who, what, where, when, and how of campus academic integrity cases. Including how a case is defined, discovered, identified to the student, validated, and evaluated. What are the instructor’s role, administrator’s role, and student’s role. What are actionable consequences? What is the overall goal to educate or be punitive? Please come and take part in making an educational stand for yourself and your institution. Who Was Eldridge Cleaver? EARLY LIFE • Leroy Eldridge Cleaver was born on August 31, 1935, in Wabbaseka, Arkansas. Growing up, Cleaver witnessed his father beating his mother. Soon after a move to Los Angeles, California, his father left the family. • REFORM SCHOOL AND PRISON • As a teenager, Cleaver was charged with stealing a bicycle and sent to reform school. He would return for a second stay for selling marijuana. In 1954, Cleaver was sent to prison for possession of marijuana. • During his incarceration, Cleaver began to develop his own political philosophy. After his release in 1957, he raped an unknown number of women, both black and white. He felt that his rapes of white women were "insurrectionary" rapes, justified by what African Americans had suffered under a system dominated by whites. • In 1958, Eldridge Cleaver was put behind bars once more, this time for assault. There, he became inspired by Malcolm X. He also began writing, detailing his continuing philosophical evolution. Though still passionate about rights for African Americans, he rejected the anger that had motivated his rapes. With the help of his lawyer, his compelling essays appeared in Ramparts magazine. His work gained the attention of supporters who pushed for Cleaver's release, which happened when he was granted parole in 1966. JOINING THE BLACK PANTHERS • In 1967, Cleaver joined the Black Panther Party as its minister of information. He became the voice of the activist group, coming up with attentiongetting slogans and editing its newspaper. The next year, Soul on Ice, a collection of Cleaver's prison writings, was released and became a bestseller. • On April 6, 1968, Cleaver was involved in a shoot-out with police that left a fellow Black Panther dead. At first jailed, he was soon released on bail, which allowed him to continue his run for president on the Peace and Freedom Party ticket. However, Cleaver was then told he would have to return to custody. EXILE AND RETURN • Rather than go back to prison, Cleaver fled to Cuba. During his time as a fugitive, he visited North Korea, North Vietnam, the Soviet Union, and China. Cleaver also travelled to Algeria, where he set up an international office for the Black Panthers before being kicked out of the group in 1971. • Cleaver next moved to France. He had a religious experience there before returning to the United States in 1975. He then proclaimed himself a bornagain Christian, decried the socialist systems he had seen and wrote that "the American political system is the freest and most democratic in the world." Cleaver's charges from the shoot-out in 1968 were eventually reduced to assault and he was sentenced to community service. LATER LIFE AND DEATH • Cleaver's later years saw him shift between different beliefs. He worked with Reverend Sun Myung Moon's Unification Church, became a Mormon and created "Christlam," which combined aspects of Christianity and Islam. His politics changed as well. After joining the Republican party, he ran for office several times and supported Ronald Reagan—whom he had formerly denounced—as president. • Cleaver also suffered from an addiction to cocaine. This resulted in several arrests, though he did not have to return to prison. A devastating head injury in 1994—which may have occurred in a drug-related attack—prompted him to recommit to evangelical Christianity. Cleaver died in Pomona, California on May 1, 1998, at the age of 62. Who Are We? • My name is Jena Henson [email protected] • I work at Kendall College in Chicago, Illinois • Kendall College is under Laureate International Universities or Laureate Education Inc. • I have worked in higher education for over 20 years • I have a BS in Education, a MS in Counseling in Guidance with a emphasis in College Student Personnel, and I am currently working on my PhD. in Counselor, Education, and Supervision. • • • • You are? You are from where? You are a student, staff member, faculty, administrator? You hope to get _____________ out of this presentation/roundtable? Establishing A Common Ground • • • • • • • • • • • What is ACADEMIC INTEGRITY? Why is it important? Who is it important to? What is the BIG deal? How is it taught? How is it learned? Who teaches it? Who learns it? How is it detected? How is it sanctioned? Who sanctions it? One Academic Integrity Case Study • Student takes on-line tutorial “Preparation for Graduate Studies”. Plagiarism is addressed. Course is not-for-credit. • Student is required to take “Foundations of Graduate Studies for CES” class. Course is for credit. Week 4 is dedicated to plagiarism. • Student takes “Professional Orientation, Ethics, and Identity” class. Student is asked to define student’s own teaching philosophy. • Student attends 1st Residency. One mandatory session discusses plagiarism. • Three terms later student takes “Teaching in Counselor Education” class. In week 2 student is asked to identify student’s own teaching philosophy for a discussion board post. Student is asked to restate student’s teaching philosophy and answer additional questions for Week 2 application. • Sunday of Week 2 student submits discussion board and application into TURNITIN. • Student is contacted by instructor that the TURNITIN rate is high and the instructor is required to turn student in for Academic Integrity. SAY WHAT ???? • Student is contacted by the Office of Academic Integrity stating the student has plagiarized someone’s else work. Student is advised to refer to the APA Manual for Plagiarism to dispute the accusation. • Student is asked by instructor to explain why student has been accused of plagiarism. Student does not know. Student does not identify with any other students in the program and did not copy someone else’s work and submit it as their own. • Student refers to APA Manual and it says: The ACA standard says: • American Counseling (ACA) Association Do What You Have To Do! • Student writes a formal statement that student did not plagiarize. Student did not copy someone else’s work. • Academic Integrity Office finds student guilty. • Sanctions are: – to repeat both assignments for up to 70% of the grade with in 10 days. – to take an Academic Integrity class, which is for non-credit that FA does not cover. – to have a permanent letter on file of students academic integrity violation. • • • • • • Student is humiliated to the point of withdrawing from the institution. Student reaches out to instructor and faculty advisor. Instructor and faculty advisor volunteer to speak on student’s behalf. Student is encouraged to follow the appeal process to the program director. Student is advised to resubmit the two assignments. Student does not understand what will change with an appeal. An “Aha-hah” Moment • Student speaks to instructor and faculty advisor who bring up the question of self-plagiarism. • Student replies no. – Academic Integrity letter specifically states “someone else’s work”. – APA Manual says self plagiarism is “published work”, student is not published. • Faculty state that TUNRITIN cannot determine what is plagiarism or selfplagiarism. • Faculty state the University sees homework assignments as “published work”. • Well, dip me in butter, put me in the oven, and call me done. • Student questions why this has to come from faculty vs. the Academic Integrity Office. • Student starts looking at University’s policies and services. • Student contacts Academic Integrity Office for resources on Academic Integrity. University Resources • Academic Integrity Office suggests to utilize: – – – – APA Manual The University Writing Center Plagiarism Checklist University Code of Conduct Fundamental Guidelines of Academic Integrity Institutions should: – Develop and publicize clear, fair, academic integrity policies, procedures, and statements that can be effectively understood and consistently implemented. – Promote positive aspects of academic integrity amongst all segments of the campus community. – Educate all members of the community about academic integrity standards so that expectations are well understood as integral components of the community culture. – Practice the actions described in campus policies consistently and fairly. – Provide support to those who follow the policies and uphold standards. – Develop, explain, and administer equitable, transparent systems for adjudicating integrity violations. – Stay abreast of current developments in technology and educational practices in order to anticipate increased risk and address potential problems. – Regularly assess the effectiveness of academic integrity policies, procedures, and practices. Revise and revitalize as necessary to update and improve. You’re Up… • • • • • • • • • • • • • What are your institutional policies? Where are they published? Are they published correctly? Consistently? Inclusively? Who enforces your policies? Who do they work with such cases? Who has a say in what the case outcome is? Is there an unbiased appeal process? What is that process? Is there an appeal process for the appeal process? What are the possible sanctions? Are sanctions equal to the violations? Are the sanctions putative or educational? Other? The Case • How is a case defined? • How is the case identified? • How is the case communicated to the student? • How is the case validated? • How is the case evaluated? • What are actionable consequences? What Next? • As an Administrator • As a Staff/Faculty Member • As a Student What was the Outcome? • • • • • • • • • • • • • Student appealed to the chair. Student explained the process as presented to student. Student highlighted all avenues for plagiarism where self-plagiarism was negated. Student explained how the student was wrong, but it was unintentional. Faculty Advisor and course instructor sent documentation to chair on behalf of student. Student asked to have chair return a sanction that was educational in nature. Student suggested to be assigned to restructure the online tutorial or graduate class, to provide a power-point presentation on self-plagiarism for the writing center, and/or to serve on the committee to revisit all classes plagiarism documentation to include self-plagiarism. Student waited 7 months for a denied decision. Student appealed to the Dean of Students. Appeal was denied. Faculty Advisor suggested social change project should be on Academic Integrity. Faculty Advisor sent social change project to Administrator at University. Administrator said project needs to be published and presented. Administrator send student the link to ICAI and here I am. Supporting Literature • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Aasheim, C. L., Rutner, P. S., Li, L., & Williams, S. R. (2012). Plagiarism and programming: A survey of student attitudes. Journal of Informational Systems Education 23(3), 297-313. Andrei, T., Tusa, E., Herteliu, C. and Stancu, S. (2007). Analyzing the students’ academic integrity using quantitative methods. Journal of Applied Quantitative Methods, 2(2), 211-220. Anson, C. M. (2011). Fraudulent practices: Academic misrepresentation of plagiarism in the name of good pedagogy. Composition Studies, 39(2), 29-43. Atkinson, T. (2008). Textual mapping of imitation and intertexuality in college and university mission statements: A new institutional perspective. Semiotica, 172(1-4), 361-387. Batane, T. (2010). Turning to Turnitin to fight plagiarism among university students. Educational Technology, 13(2), 1-12. Bennett, K. K., Behrendt, l. S., & Boothby, J. L. (2011). Instructor perceptions of plagiarism: Are we finding common ground. Teaching of Psychology, 38(1), 29-35. Bretag, T. & Mahmud, S. (2009). A model for determining student plagiarism: Electronic detection and academic judgment. Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice, 6(1), 49-60. Butakov, S., Dyagilev, V., & Tskhay, A. (2012). Protecting student’s intellectual property in the web plagiarism detecting process. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 15(5), 1-19. Center for Academic Integrity. (2013, June). Fundamental values project. Retrieved from http://www.academicintegrity.org/icai/resources-2.php Christensen, G. J. (2011). Plagiarism: Can it be stopped? Business Communications Quarterly, 74 (2), 201-204. Christensen Hughes, J. M. & McCabe, D. L. (2006). Understanding academic misconduct. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 36 (1), 49-63. Craig, P. A., Federici, E., & Buehler, M. A. (2010). Instructing students in academic integrity. Journal of College of Science Teaching, 40(2), 50-55. Dante, E. (2010). The shadow scholar. Chronicle of higher education. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/article/The-shadow-scholar/125329/ Davis, J. (2011). Arresting student plagiarism: Are we investigators or educators? Business Communication Quarterly, 74(2), 160-163. Dee, T. S. & Jacob, B. A. (2011). Rational ignorance in education. The Journal of Human Resources, 47(2), 397-434. Den Ouden, H., & Van Wijk, C. (2011). Plagiarism: punish or prevent? Some experiences with academic copycatting in the Netherlands. Business Communication Quarterly, 74(2), 196-200. Elander, J., Pittmam, G., Lusher, J., Fox, P., & Payne, N. (2010). Evaluation of an intervention to help students avoid unintentional plagiarism by improving their authorial identity. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 35(2), 157171. Gallant, T. B., & Drinan, P. (2008). Toward a model of academic integrity institutionalization: Information practice in postsecondary education. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 38(2), 25-43. Hammer, E. G., Agnello, M. F., Kiser, M., & Osaghae, O. (2012). An investigation of plagiarism in developmental literacy. Research and Teaching in Developmental Education, 29(1), 15-32. Hansen, B., Stith, D., & Tesdell, L. S. (2011). Plagiarism: What’s the big deal? Business Communication Quarterly, 74(2), 188-191. Heather, J. (2010). Turnitoff: Identifying and fixing a hole in current plagiarism detection software. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 35(6), 647-660. Insley, R. (2011). Managing plagiarism: A preventative approach. Business Communication Quarterly, 74(2), 183-187. Instructional Technology Council. (2009). Best practices to promote academic integrity in online education. WICHE Cooperative for Educational Technologies, 2, 1-4. Kose, O., & Arikan, A. (2011). Reducing plagiarism by using online software: An experimental study. Contemporary Online Language Education Journal, 1, 122-129. Lipka, S. (2009). College sharpens tactics for resolving academic-integrity cases. Chronicle of Higher Education, 55(31), 20. Mastin, D. F., Peszka, J., & Lily, D. R. (2009). Online academic integrity. Teaching of Psychology, 36, 174-178. Nealy, C. (2011). Rethinking plagiarism. Business Communications Quarterly, 74 (2), 205-209. Robelen, E. W. (2007). Online anti-plagiarism service sets off court fight. Education Week, 26(36), 1, 16-17. Roig, M. (2005). Re-using text from one’s own previously published papers: An exploratory study of potential self-plagiarism. Psychological Reports, 97, 43-49. Royce, J. (2003). Has Turnitin.com got it all wrapped up? Teacher Librarian, 30(4), 26. Scalon, P. M. (2007). Song from myself: An anatomy of self-plagiarism. Retrieved from http://quod.lib.umich.edu/p/plag/5240451.0002.007?rgn+main:view+fulltext Shahabuddin, A. (2009). Plagiarism in academia. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 21 (3), 353-359. Sharf, R. S. (2012). Theories of psychotherapy and counseling: Concepts and cases (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. Sutherland-Smith, W. (2010). Retribution, deterrence and reform: the dilemmas of plagiarism management in universities. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 32(1), 5-16. Voelker, T. A., Love, L. G., & Pentina, I. (2012). Plagiarism: What don’t they know? Journal of Education for Business, 87, 36-41. Walker, J. (2010). Measuring plagiarism: Researching what students do, not what they say they do. Studies in Higher Education, 35(1), 41-59. Wilkinson, J. (2009). Staff and student perceptions of plagiarism and cheating. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 20(2), 98-105. Williamson, K. & McGregor, J. (2011). Generating knowledge and avoiding plagiarism: Smart information use by high school students. School Library Media Research, 14, 1-20. Youmans, R. J. (2011). Does the adoption of plagiarism-detection software in higher education reduce plagiarism? Studies in Higher Education, 36(7), 749-761. Zelna, C. L. & Bresciani, M. J. (2004). Assessing and addressing academic integrity at a doctoral extensive institution. NASPA Journal, 42(1), 72-93.