Literary Devices Understanding the effect of irony and similes in literature Irony is a contrast between expectation and reality. Dramatic irony occurs when the reader knows something a character does not know. What is ironic about Lina using blue to color the sky in her picture? 1. The author uses similes to describe illness. Rewrite each of the following examples using literal language without similes. (In other words, what does the simile really mean.) 1. …he [Lina’s father] seemed to grow dim like a lamp losing power, and the sound of this breathing was like water gurgling through a clogged pipe. 1. It [Granny’s pulse] was fluttery, like a moth that has hurt itself and is flapping in crooked circles. 1. Why do you think the author uses similes instead of literal language for these passages?