Giordano Bruno

What is it…?
A Duck, or a Rabbit?!
Pythagoras: “All is Number”  the “Music of the Spheres”
Pythagoras at his
Intervals between harmonious musical notes always have whole number ratios.
Playing half a length of a guitar string gives the same note as the open string,
but an octave higher; a third of a length gives a different but harmonious note; etc.
Non-whole number ratios, on the other hand, tend to give dissonant sounds.
Pythagoras described the primary building blocks of musical harmony: the octave (1:1),
the perfect fifth (3:2), the perfect fourth (4:3) and the major third (5:4).
The “Geocentric Universe” of Pythagoras & Aristotle
So… If the “Dome of the Stars”
turns the Universe, then
what turns the Dome of the Stars…?
Obviously, it’s
the “Prime Mover”!
The Golden Age of Islamic Astronomy (825 – 1450 A.D.)
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 – 1543 A.D.)
Giordano Bruno
(1548 – 1600 A.D.)
The monument to Bruno in the place he
was executed, Campo de' Fiori in Rome.
“It may be you fear more
to deliver judgment upon me
than I fear judgment.”
Galileo Galilei (1564 – 1642 A.D.)
Galileo Observed… Enormous Craters on the Moon
Galileo's Sidereus Nuncius (the “Starry Messenger”), this edition from 1653.
Galileo first described craters and mountains on the Moon, as seen with a telescope.
Galileo's sketch of a sky filled with stars.
(A drawing of the Andromeda Galaxy…
…Like the Milky Way!)
Galileo Observed… Four Large Moons of Jupiter
Galileo Observed… The Phases of Venus
The first successful measurements of Stellar Parallax (of 61 Cygni)… in 1838!
Friedrich Bessel’s
Tycho Brahe (1546 – 1601 A.D.)
(and his Private Observatory, “Uraniborg”, on Hven Island)
Johannes Kepler (1571 – 1630 A.D.)
Kepler’s 1st Law…
Kepler’s 1st Law: Planetary Orbits are Ellipses with the Sun at 1 Focus
Kepler’s 2nd Law…
Kepler’s 2nd Law: Equal Areas are “Swept Out” in Equal Times
Kepler’s 3rd Law:
 =  ⇒  = √
Isaac Newton (1642 – 1727 A.D.)
“Newton’s Cannon” Animation:
Q: How to detect dim “Extrasolar Planets” (“Exoplanets”)?
A: Use Newton’s Third Law!
i.e., “Force-Counterforce”)
Extrasolar Planets
Web Link: The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopedia
“There is a single general space, a single vast
immensity which we may freely call void: in it
are innumerable globes like this on which we
live and grow, this space we declare to be
infinite, since neither reason, convenience,
sense-perception nor nature assign to it a limit.”
— Giordano Bruno
Giordano Bruno
Quoted in Joseph Silk, “The Big Bang” (1997)
Habitable Exoplanets Catalog (

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