Micronutrient revision

Micronutrient revision
• What are micro-nutrients? And what do
they include?
• Micro-nutrients are the nutrients needed
by the body in smaller amounts
• They include vitamins and minerals
• What are vitamins?
• Vitamins are chemical substances that are
vital to life. As the body cannot make most of
them, they must be supplied by food.
• What are the two types of vitamins?
• Fat-soluble vitamins and water-soluble
• What vitamins are fat-soluble vitamins?
• A, D, E, K (ADEK)
• What vitamins are water soluble vitamins?
• C and the B complex
• What are the four functions of Vitamin A?
To help you to see in dim light
To keep mucous membranes healthy
For the maintenance of healthy skin
For normal growth in children
• Name sources of Vitamin A
• Animal sources- milk, cheese, eggs, oily fish,
• Plant Sources- carrots, tomatoes, apricots,
spinach, cabbage
• What happens if you don't have enough
Vitamin A?
• Reduced vision in dim light leading to night
• Dry and infected skin and mucous membranes
• What happens if you have too much Vitamin
• During pregnancy if can be harmful to the
developing foetus
• What are the three functions of vitamin D?
• For the proper formation of bones and teeth
• To promote quicker healing of bone fractures
• Required for the absorption of calcium and
• What are sources of Vitamin D?
• Sun
• Cod liver oil, Oily fish, liver, egg yolk, fortified
foods such as breakfast cereals
• What happens if you don't have enough
vitamin D?
• Poor growth and a risk of rickets (soft bendy
bones) in children
• Osteomalacia (adult rickets)
• What happens if you have too much Vitamin
• Can lead to deposits of calcium in the blood
and heart
• What groups of people can be at risk of
vitamin D deficiency?
• Housebound
• Religion-burkas
• Why should we eat foods containing water
soluble vitamins every day?
• Because our bodies cannot store them in the
same way as fat soluble vitamins
• Which vitamin make up the vitamin B
• B1,B2, B3
, B12 and folic acid
• B1, B2, B3 are also known as?
• Thiamine, riboflavin and niacin
• What are the 3 functions of the B complex
• Helps release energy from carbohydrates
• For growth and normal function of the
digestive system
• For normal growth in children
• What are the sources of the B complex?
• White and wholemeal bread
• Fortified breakfast cereals
• Meat, liver, kidney
• What happens if you do not have enough B
• Tiredness due to energy not being released
from carbohydrates
• Depression, irritability, anxiety
• Slow growth in children
• What is the function of Vitamin B12?
• Makes red blood cells which carry oxygen
around the body
• Keeps your nerves healthy
• What are sources of vitamin B12?
• All animal foods- meat, fish, eggs, milk, cheese
• Fortified breakfast cereals
• Cereals
• What happens if you don’t have enough
Vitamin B12?
• Feel tired and listless
• Anaemia
• What are the functions of folic acid?
• Essential for the formation of red blood cells
• Ensures unborn babies grow and develop
properly and help protect against neural tube
defects such as spina bifida
• What are sources of Folic acid?
Green leafy vegetables- broccoli, brussels
Wholegrain cereals
Fortified breakfast cereals
Peas, beans, lentils
Oranges, banana, grapefruit
• What happens if you don’t have enough folic
• Neural tubule defects in unborn babies
• Anaemia
• What are the 5 functions of vitamin C?
• To make connective tissue to bind body cells
• Help cuts and wounds heal quicker
• Protects immune system
• Assists in absorption of iron to prevent anaemia
• To build and maintain the skin
• What are sources of vitamin C?
• Blackcurrants, green pepper, kiwi, citrus fruits,
strawberries, green leafy vegetables
• What happens if you don't have enough
vitamin C?
• Cuts and wounds fail to heal properly
• Anaemia may develop as vitamin C has to be
present to allow iron to be absorbed
• Greater risk of developing heart
disease/cancer as Vit C is an antioxidant
• What are the functions of antioxidant vitamins
and which vitamins do they include?
• Antioxidants ward off free radicals. They form
a defence system against these free radicals
which damage cells and tissues resulting in an
increased risk of heart disease and cancers.
• A, C, E (ACE)
• What is the effect of storage on Vitamin A?
• Vitamins may be lost to oxidation/exposure to
• How can you reduce the loss of Vitamin A
when storing?
• Store in the fridge
• Cover foods
• Store in dark containers away from the light
• What is the effect of storage on Vitamin B1
• Exposure to light/UV light reduces thiamine
• How can you reduce the loss of Vitamin B1
(thiamine) when storing?
• Store away from light
• What is the effect of storage on Vitamin B2
• Deteriorates quickly with exposure to UV light
• How can you reduce the loss of Vitamin B2
(riboflavin) when storing?
• Store away from sunlight, keep in dark
• Avoid foods stored for a length of time in
brightly lit supermarket display cabinets
• What is the effect of storage on Vitamin B3
• Some loss due to oxidation
• How can you reduce the loss of Vitamin B3
(niacin) when storing?
• Avoid storage if possible
• What is the effect of storage on Vitamin C?
• Vitamin C lost through oxidation
• Exposure to air changes chemical structure of Vit
• Bruised fruits and veg lose Vit C due to enzyme
action and oxidation
• Ready prepared produce has gone through
processing and been exposed to air and light so
reducing Vit C content
• How can you reduce the loss of Vitamin C when storing?
Buy as fresh as possible
Store in a refrigerator (low temp slows down oxidation)
Store away from light
Avoid bruising
Avoid buying ready prepared produce
Frozen veg has higher Vit C content because they are
frozen quickly to preserve the Vitamin
• What is the effect of preparation on Vitamin B
• When wheat is milled to produce white flour,
the bran is removed resulting in Vitamin B loss
• How do you reduce the loss of Vitamin B
complex during preparation?
• Buy wholegrain bread or brown rice
• What is the effect of preparation on Vitamin
• It can leach into liquid as it is very unstable and
water soluble
• Exposure to light causes vitamin C loss through
• Peeling exposes surface to air speeding up oxidation
• An enzyme in vegetables called oxidase is activated
by chopping and cutting
• How do you reduce the loss of Vitamin C during
• Avoid soaking in water
• Do not prepare too far in advance
• Use sharp knives to reduce damage to cells as
this causes the enzyme to be released
• Avoid peeling if possible or peeling thinly
• Use acids such as lemon juice to slow down the
loss of vitamin C through oxidation
• What is the effect of cooking on Vitamin C?
• Destroyed by very low temperatures
• Lost through leaching into water
• Prolonged cooking leads to vitamin C being
lost through leaching or exposure to heat
• Can be lost by reheating foods or keeping
• How do you reduce the loss of vitamin C through
• Add to boiling water and cook for minimum time
• Use as little water as possible to prevent loss
through leaching
• Choose cooking methods such as microwaving
and stir frying to reduce loss
• Cook for as short a time as possible
• Serve immediately
• What is the effect of cooking on Vitamin B
• Vitamin B is stable in temperatures up to
boiling point. It is gradually destroyed if
heated to above boiling point for a long period
of time
• Folic acid is water soluble and destroyed by
prolonged cooking
• How do you reduce the loss of vitamin B
complex through cooking?
• Use quick methods of cooking such as
steaming, stir-frying, microwaving and
pressure cooking to preserve the vitamins.
• What are the 5 functions of Calcium?
• It combines with phosphorus to make calcium
phosphate which gives hardness and strength to
bones and teeth
• Helps to prevent osteoporosis in later life
• Helps blood to clot after injury
• Required for the maintenance of bones and teeth
• Required for the correct functioning of muscles
and nerves
• What are sources of calcium?
Milk, cheese, yoghurt
Fortified white flour
Green leafy vegetables
Tinned fish, e.g. sardines/salmon
Dried fruit, nuts, cereals
• What can happen if you don’t have enough
calcium in your diet?
Poor development of bones and teeth
Is a bone is broken it may take longer to heal
Osteoporosis in later life
Blood loss
• Name the three functions of calcium
• Iron is a component of haemoglobin, the
substance that forms red blood cells
• Haemoglobin helps transport oxygen around
the body to every cell to help reduce the
feeling of tiredness
• Iron is required to help prevent anaemia
• What are sources of iron?
• Red meat, liver, kidney, corned beef
• Fortified flour and bread
• Green leafy vegetables
• Dried fruit and pulses
• Cocoa and plain chocolate
Remember Vit C helps with the absorption of iron
• What can happen if you do not have enough
iron in the body?
• Tiredness, lacking in energy, weakness
• Anaemia
• What can happen if you have too much iron in
the body?
• Can collect in the liver and can be toxic
• What four groups of people especially require
• Pregnant women
• Girls and women
• Injuries and operations
• Babies
• Name the two functions of sodium.
• Essential for maintaining the correct fluid
balance in the body
• Required for correct muscle and nerve activity,
too low an intake can lead to cramps
• Name sources of sodium
Table salt
Salty snacks
Canned foods
Takeaway meals
• What is MSG?
• A flavour enhancer high in sodium which is
often used in many processed foods and
Chinese meals.
• What can happen if you don’t have enough
• Muscle cramps, especially after exercise
• What can happen if you have too much
• High blood pressure, strokes and coranry
heart disease
• Name the four functions of water
• Required for all body fluids e.g. saliva, digestive
juices, blood, sweat, urine
• Helps excrete waste from the body as it combines
with NSP to prevent constipation
• Regulates body temperature through perspiration
• Lubricates joints and membranes
• Name the three main sources of water.
• Fruits and vegetables
• Milk/fruit juices
• Tap/bottles water
• What can happen if you don’t have enough
• Dehydrated resulting in confusion/lack of
• Name the 5 functions of dietary fibre
• Helps to remove toxic or harmful waste products from
the body
• Helps prevent bowel disorders such as constipation,
diverticular disease and bowel cancer
• Absorbs water to help bulk out the faeces which helps
move it through the body
• Gives a feeling of fullness, to help prevent overeating and
• May help lower LDL cholesterol and so reduce the risk of
heart disease.
• Name sources of dietary fibre
• Wholegrain cereals, bread, oats
• Pulse vegetables-peas, beans, lentils
• Fresh fruit and vegetables
• Name the two types of dietary fibre and give a
brief description of each.
• Soluble fibre: This type is though to slow
down digestion and absorption of
carbohydrates to help control blood sugar
level(useful for diabetics)
• Insoluble fibre: This type absorbs water and
increases bulk to help the gut work properly
• What happens if you do not have enough
dietary fibre?
• Bowel disorders e.g. constipation, bowel
• Which factors help assist with calcium
• A good supply of Vitamin D
• Lactose (a sugar found in milk)
• Protein-the amino acids formed during
digestion of protein combine with calcium to
assist absorption
• What factors hinder calcium absorption
• A lack of vitamin D
• Phytic acid found in wholegrain cereals
• Excess dietary fibre binds with calcium in food
and is passed out of the body
• What factor assists iron absorption
• A good supply of Vitamin C to help iron
change from the ferric to the ferrous state so
that it can be absorbed
• Which factors hinder iron absorption
• A lack of Vitamin C
• Too much indigestible dietary fibre which
binds with iron and transports it out of the
• How do calcium phosphorus and Vitamin D
work together?
• Calcium and phosphorus are both needed
together for the formation and maintenance
of strong bones and teeth. Together they
form calcium phosphate which gives bones
and teeth their hardness. Vitamin D is the
essential link.
• Which nutrient helps with absorption of iron?
• Vitamin C
• Which nutrient helps release energy from
• Vitamin B complex

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