a pilot project on agricultural water management in turkey

Report
A PILOT PROJECT ON
AGRICULTURAL WATER
MANAGEMENT IN TURKEY:
GÖLBAŞI SPECIAL
ENVIRONMENTAL
PROTECTION AREA
PART-1
Prof. Dr. Süleyman Kodal
Prof. Dr. Mehmet Çelik
Assist. Prof. Dr. Gökşen Çapar
HE PARTNER INSTITUTIONS
TURKEY
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Ankara University
Water Management Institute
 Dept. Farm Structures and Irrigation
 Dept. Geological Engineering
UK
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Middle East Tech. University
Dept. Environmental Engineering
 Dept. Chemical Engineering
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Imperial College, London
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Department of Chemical
Engineering
Newcastle University
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School of Agriculture, Food and
Rural Development
RESEARCHERS
TURKEY
UK
Ankara University
Imperial College, London
Assist. Prof. Dr. Gökşen Çapar
Prof. Dr. Kang Li
(Team Leader)
(Team Leader)
Prof. Dr. Süleyman Kodal
Dr. Zhentao Wu
Prof. Dr. Mehmet Çelik
Dr. Francisco R Garcia Garcia
Dr. Şebnem Arslan
Dr. Ben Kingsbury
Cenk Akşit
Rami Faiz
METU
Ana Maria Gouveia Gil
Prof. Dr. Ülkü Yetiş
Nur Hidayati Othman
Prof. Dr. Levent Yılmaz
Tao Li
Gölbaşı GDDFAL
Newcastle University
Erdoğan Ataberk
Reader John Gowing
Orhan Gönenç
Dr. Mike Palmer
ANKARA UNIVERSITY
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A public university.
First higher education institute
of the Republic of Turkey.
Vast experience for 66 years,
highly qualified academic staff
and students, well established
teaching, learning and research
facilities:
14 faculties,
 13 institutes,
 7 vocational schools,
 2 colleges,
 36 research centers,
 1 state conservatory,
 1 prep school
located in a total of 12 campuses.
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WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE
(ENSTITU-SU)
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Enstitu-Su is one of the brand new institutes established
by Ankara University.
It was established in 2010 to provide new insights and
suggestions to water-borne problems in our country and in
the world.
Located in Golbasi 50th Year Campus.
Limited human resources:
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Director
Assistant Director
2 Faculty Members
Institute Secretary
2 Officials
Limited space (6 offices, 1 meeting room).
Limited research facilities (no lab.).
Education has not started yet.
INTERNATIONAL PROJECTS-1
Project Name
A Pilot Project on Agricultural Water
Management in Turkey: Golbasi Special
Environmental Protection Area
Collaborating
Countries
Turkey-UK
Sponsor
British Council (Knowledge Partnership Programme)
Duration
1 year (April 2012- May 2013)
Budget
22 000 GBP
Partner HEIs
Ankara University Water Management Institute
Middle East Tech. Unv.
Golbasi GDDFAL
Imperial College, London
Newcastle University
INTERNATIONAL PROJECTS-2
Project Name
Adaptation to Climate Change in Golbasi Region
of Turkey via Rainwater Harvesting and Efficient
Water Use
Sponsor
United Nations
UNDP and COCA-COLA PARTNERSHIP “EVERY
DROP MATTERS” Programme
Duration
1 year (October 2012- October 2013)
Budget
116 000 USD
Scope
Construction of rainwater harvesting system and drip
irrigation system in Golbasi region. Construction of an
automatic meteorology station. Construction of a
demonstration area for training of farmers.
PROF. DR. SULEYMAN KODAL
ANKARA UNV. FARM STRUCTURES AND IRRIGATION DEPT. DISKAPI ANKARA TURKEY
TEL: + 90 312 596 1217, FAX: + 90 312 316 7467, E-MAIL: [email protected]
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BS, MS, PhD in Farm Structures and Irrigation (Ankara Unv.)
Taught courses;
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Research areas:
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Hydraulics
Engineering Mechanics
System Engineeering
Irrigation Methods
Irrigation Scheduling Techniques
Irrigation, irrigation management
Plant water consumption
Agrometeorology
Optimization techniques
Supervised 5 MS, 5 PhD students
Over 40 publications in international and national journals
Several proceedings (international + national)
PROF. DR. MEHMET ÇELIK
ANKARA UNV.
GEOLOGICAL ENG. DEPT. TANDOGAN ANKARA TURKEY
TEL: + 90 312 203 3372, FAX: + 90 312 215 0487, E-MAIL: [email protected]
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BS, MS in Geological
Engineering (Selcuk Unv.)
PhD Geological Engineering
(Ankara Unv.)
Taught courses;
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Hydrogeology
Geological mapping
Engineering project
Groundwater chemistry
Karst hydrogeology
Thermal and mineral springs
Well hydraulics
Environmental pollution
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Research areas:
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Hydrogeology
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Karst hydrogeology
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Geothermal springs
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Well hydraulics
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Hydrogeology
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Environmental hydrogeology
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Groundwater-surface waterseawater interaction
Supervised 10 MS, 1 PhD students
19 publications in international
journals, 4 publications in national
journals
Several proceedings (international +
national)
ASSIST. PROF. DR. GOKSEN CAPAR
ANKARA UNV. WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE
GOLBASI 50TH YEAR CAMPUS BLOCK L FLOOR 2 ANKARA TURKEY
TEL: + 90 312 600 0100/1544, FAX: + 90 312 485 2208, E-MAIL: [email protected]
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BS, MS, PhD in Environmental Eng. (Middle East Technical Unv.)
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Post-graduate study in Imperial College, London
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Statistical Methods for Engineers, Solid Waste Disposal (METU; 2006-2008)
Research areas:
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9 months in 2004; membrane reactors fro oxygen removal from ultrapure water
(Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Kang Li, Chem. Eng. Dept.)
Taught courses;
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Teaching Assistant (1997-2004)
Water and wastewater treatment/reuse; Physicochemical processes; adsorption,
membrane processes (Textile wastewater reclamation; Disinfection by-products in
drinking waters)
Downstream processing; Silk processing effluents (Protein recovery, Bioseparation)
Co-supervised 1 MS student
13 publications in international journals (SCI), 3 publications in national
journals
Several proceedings (international + national)
A PILOT PROJECT ON AGRICULTURAL
WATER MANAGEMENT IN TURKEY:
GÖLBAŞI SPECIAL ENVIRONMENTAL
PROTECTION AREA
RATIONALE OF THE PROJECT-1
TURKEY IS NOT RICH IN WATER RESOURCES
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Turkey is not an affluent country in terms of water resources,
hence precautions should be taken to avoid water stress in the
future.
The total potential available water resources from surface flow
and groundwater amounts to 112 billion m3 per year.
The available water per capita per year is about 1/5 of the
water-rich countries and it is decreasing due to relatively high
growth rate of population. It is estimated by the experts that,
in 2030, the amount of available water will likely be around
1000 m3/capita/year.
For the accurate management of water resources, water
quality and quantity should be managed simultaneously.
Water potential available per
capita (m3/capita)
WATER STRESS
INCREASING IN
4000
TURKEY
3000
2000
4000
1499
1000
1120
0
1960
2012
2030
Water richness of some countries with respect to water poverty index
Country
Resource
Access
Capacity
Use
Environment
Water poverty
index
Finland
12.2
20.0
18.0
10.6
17.1
78.0
UK
Germany
7.3
6.5
20.0
20.0
17.8
18.0
10.3
6.2
16.0
13.7
71.5
64.5
Congo (Rep.)
17.1
10.3
11.8
7.3
10.9
57.3
Turkey
7.8
14.8
13.1
10.7
10.1
56.5
Nigeria
7.4
7.5
8.5
10.4
10.1
43.9
The Water Poverty Index: an International Comparison, Peter Lawrence, Jeremy Meigh and Caroline
Sullivan, Keele Economics Research Papers, Keele Unv, 2002.
WATER QUALITY MAP OF TURKEY
Source: Ministry of Environment and Forestry General Directorate of Environmental Management, 2006.
(mentioned under the title of Freshwater in EEA, SoER 2010)
RATIONALE OF THE PROJECT-2
TURKEY IS CANDIDATE FOR THE
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EUROPEAN UNION
Turkey is a candidate country to the European Union (EU) and
therefore responsible for adopting the environmental policy of EU
and transposing the related legislation.
The Water Framework Directive (WFD) (2000/EC/60) requires all
inland and coastal waters in member countries to reach “good
status” by 2015.
The WFD promotes the integrated management of water
resources to support environmentally sound development and
reduce problems associated with excessive water abstraction,
pollution, floods and droughts.
RATIONALE OF THE PROJECT-3
GOLBASI IS A SPECIAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AREA
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Gölbaşı district is located at a distance of 20 km south of Ankara city.
Gölbaşı was declared as a Special Environmental Protection Area (SEPA)
in 1990 to protect the natural assests of the district.
Gölbaşı SEPA consists of Gölbaşı Town, one sub-district and 10 villages.
The population and area of Gölbaşı SEPA is 40803 and 274 km2,
respectively.
The most important natural components of Gölbaşı SEPA are Mogan and
Eymir Lakes basin, which covers an approximate area of 971 km2.
Mogan and Eymir Lakes are natural interconnected dam lakes formed
behind alluvial barriers. Mogan and Eymir Lakes cover a surface area of 5
km2 and 1.2 km2, respectively.
These lakes have ecological and recreational significance, and the
wetlands and moorlands in the close surroundings are under protection.
488 endemic plant species and 200 bird species exist in Gölbaşı SEPA
(some of them must be protected under Bern Agreement).
Cornflower
(Centaurea tchihatcheffii)
Population:
Gölbaşı SEPA: 40803
Gölbaşı district (2010): 95109
Area:
Gölbaşı SEPA: 274 km2
Gölbaşı district: 738 km2
Mogan and Eymir basin : 971 km2
Mogan Lake surface area: 5 km2
Eymir Lake surface area: 1.2 km2
RATIONALE OF THE PROJECT-4
GOLBASI SEPA HAS MANY WATER PROBLEMS
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The lakes are under the pressure of intense pollution, caused
mostly by urbanization, agricultural industry and recreational
use.
The district is not rich in water sources available for
agricultural use. Groundwater potential of Ankara city is
200 million m3 as of 2006 and the groundwater
management reserve of Gölbaşı district is 2.23 hm3/year.
In recent years, the demand for groundwater has increased
in the district, especially for irrigation purposes (Ankara
SoER, 2009).
In the district, there are creeks feeding the lake, however
they mostly dry in summer. Moreover, the lakes are
inadequately fed by groundwater.
There is also salinity and boron contamination problem in
all groundwaters in the district.
Therefore, all groundwater sources are not suitable for
irrigation and livestock drinking.
GOLBASI-METEOROLOGICAL
Station
DATA
Altitude
(m)
Years
Precipitation
(mm)
Temperature
(mm)
Evaporation
(mm)
Eymir Lake
1011
1995-2000
395
-
-
Ankara
894
1926-2002
383
11.7
1152
Dikmen
1075
1961-1994
450
11
-
Günalan
1230
1972-2000
394
-
1324
İkizce
925
1966-2001
401
9.5
-
Haymana
1225
1929-1991
447.5
10.1
-
Turkey annual average precipitation (1970-2000): 638.2 mm
Rehabilitation studies of
Sukesen Creek is completed
by the Golbasi Municipality.
The canal is renovated and
the Creek, which collects
water from Gerder and
Orencik villages and ends in
Mogan Lake is cleaned. Su
Kesen Creek was previously
flowing like a mud and
carrying many polluters into
the lake.
RATIONALE OF THE PROJECT-5
AGRICULTURE IS THE MAIN WATER CONSUMER
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Agriculture sector is the largest water consumer in Turkey;
irrigated agriculture currently consumes 75 percent of total
water consumption, which corresponds to about 30 percent
of renewable water availability.
Demand for groundwater is rapidly increasing, especially
in areas where there is a lack or an extreme shortage of
surface water (e.g. Gölbaşı district).
Agricultural water usage, applications of fertilizer and
pesticides may negatively affect the water courses.
WATER USE BY SECTORS IN TURKEY
• 34 billion m3 in irrigation, 7 billion m3 in domestic water supply and 5 billion m3
in industry, totally 46 billion m3 of water was consumed in 2008.
• This sum corresponds to only 41% of the available exploitable potential of 112
billion m3.
• According to future projections, the share of irrigation use will decrease from
74% in 2008 to 64% by 2030. On the other hand, the domestic and industrial use
would increase to 16% and 20% in this period, respectively.
Source: General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works
International Agriculture Fair in Turkey
New Research and Development
Plant in Golbasi for production of
ecological oyster mushroom.
Gölbaşı Mayor Yakup
Odabaşı visits Poultry
Research Institute of
Ministry of Food
Agriculture and
Livestock for the
opening ceremony of
new hatchery (Capacity
30000 chicken).
RATIONALE OF THE PROJECT-6
ANKARA UNV.
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50TH YEAR CAMPUS NEEDS WATER
Gölbaşı 50th Year Campus of Ankara University was put into service in 2008. It is still
under development and construction continues.
The area of the campus is 700 decares.
Currently there are 2500-3000 students and 250 personnel in the campus. These numbers
are expected to increase as new departments will move (or established).
Forestration activities take place and great importance is given to the landscape. At the
moment, 3000 trees, ornamental plants and grass are irrigated.
The water need of the campus is 200 m3/day at the moment, and drinking water
(municipality water) is used for this purpose due to water scarcity and boron contamination
problem in the district. Irrigation with drinking water is quite costly.There is an urgent
need to find another water source for irrigation of the campus area.
State Hydraulic Works reports that the hydrogeological characteristics of Gölbaşı region
where the Campus area is located, is “very low permeable and very limited ground water
potential”
If groundwater source is decided to be used, then boron removal will be required. The
quality of groundwaters used for irrigation should be controlled and treatment should be
applied where necessary.
Construction of a reverse osmosis (RO) plant in Gölbaşı Campus for boron removal would
be useful. The technical experience gained with the RO plant for boron removal in Gölbaşı
Campus would be a good example for farmers in the district. Water Management Institute
will play a key role in advising the local enterprises and farmers about the removal of
boron from their water sources.
Technology Development Zone
near 50 th Year Campus
European University Association
visited Gölbaşı district as part of
their study visit to Atilim
University. The Mayor Yakup
Odabaşı mentioned that there are
3 big universities in Gölbaşı, and
the fourth one is under
construction.

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