MM6016 Branding and Marketing Communication 1b – CBBE

Report
MM6016
BRANDING AND MARKETING COMMUNICATION
CONSUMER BASED BRAND EQUITY
Master of Business Administration
School of Business and Management
Institut Teknologi Bandung
OVERVIEW
We have learned:
1. The origin of brand
2. Traditional and practical meaning of brand
3. Brand evolvement
4. Brand classification
5. Strategic brand management steps
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Relationship between brand and product
Relationship between elements of a brand system
Relationship between brand and consumer
Relationship between brand identity and brand image
TODAY’S LESSONS
• Customer Based Brand Equity
• Brand Positioning
• Brand Audit
MM6016 Branding and Marketing Communication
Customer Based
Brand Equity
Equity pada Brand
• Wood (2000): brand equity merupakan hasil
dari upaya untuk menggambarkan hubungan
antara brand dan pelanggannya
• Perkembangan istilah brand equity:
– Perspektif akuntansi (orientasi pada perusahaan)
– Perspektif pemasaran (orientasi pada pelanggan)
– Perspektif integral (orientasi pada seluruh
stakeholders)
Brand Equity: perspektif perusahaan
Author
Year
Definition
Kapferer
2008 The current financial value of the flow of future profits attached to
the brand itself (the potential future contribution linked to the name
in the current distribution context)
Feldwick
1996
The total value of a brand as a separable asset - when it is sold, or
included on a balance sheet;
Rutledge
1998
The present value of this stream.
of future-incremental-cash-flow is brand equity.
Brand Equity: perspektif pelanggan
Author Year
Definition
Keller
1993
“The differential effect of brand knowledge on consumer response to the marketing
of a brand”
Na et al.
1999
Brand equity is constructed in the minds of the consumer through assessment of
relevant evaluation criteria and is directly related to customer satisfaction and
consequent purchase.
Keller
1998
2001
Customer-based brand equity defined as the differential effect that brand
knowledge has on customer response to marketing activity
Kapferer
2008
Total indifference to attachment, loyalty, and willingness to buy and rebuy based on
beliefs of superiority and evoked emotions
Aaker
1991
A set of five categories of brand assets and liabilities linked to a brand, its name, and
symbol that add or subtract from the value provided by a product or service to a
firm or to that firm’s customers, or both. These categories of brand assets are brand
loyalty, brand awareness, perceived quality, brand associations, and other
proprietary assets (patents, trademarks, and channel relationships).
Brand Equity: perspektif integral (1)
Author
Year
Definition
Leuthesser
1988
The set of associations and behaviour on the part of a brand's customers,
channel members and parent corporation that permits the brand to earn
greater volume or greater margins than it could without the brand name.
Srivastava
1991
and Shocker
The aggregation of all accumulated attitudes and behavior patterns in the
extended minds of consumers, distribution channels and influence agents,
which will enhance future profits and long term cash flow
Marketing
Science
Institute
The value that is added by the name and rewarded in the market with
better profit margins or market shares. It can be viewed by customers and
channel members as both a financial asset and as a set of favorable
associations and behaviors.
1989
Brand Equity: perspektif integral (2)
Stakeholder:
Expectations
Consumers/Customer
Employees
Consume a quality product, with good reputation and beneficial
Work in a company with a good brand reputation and high job
security
Suppliers & Distributors Work with a company that has a strong brand, with a good
brand reputation and owns the market
Media, NGOs, Public
Competitor
Government
Brand is socially responsible and is known for good
environmental awareness anf financial conduct.
Fair competition with a strong brand with a good reputation, to
gain high share in the market
Run legal operations and create employment
Brand Relationship sebagai Perantara
Brand equity is
created here
Sumber: Jones, Richard (2005), ‘Finding sources of brand value: Developing a stakeholder model of
brand equity’, Journal of Brand Management, pg.10
Customer Based Brand Equity
• Alasan menggunakan perspektif konsumen:
– Pertama, brand equity merupakan upaya untuk
mendefinisikan hubungan antara pelanggan
dengan brand (Wood, 2000).
– Kedua, brand equity akan memiliki arti yang
komparatif dengan brand value, brand loyalty, dan
brand image – sebagaimana yang telah
diklasifikasikan oleh Feldwick (1996) – jika dilihat
dari sudut pandang konsumen.
– Basis dalam menentukan Customer Equity
Brand Equity and Brand Value
• Brand equity reflects the customer’s perception either
for or against the brand.
– A combination of marketing and operating tactics are used
to help firms attract customers and create brand equity.
– The accumulation of brand equity activities builds brand
value.
• Brand value is a measure of the difference of the net
present cash flows from a branded offering over those
of a lesser known or even unbranded offering.
– Brand value is often a substantial percentage of total firm
value.
Model CBBE
Model Akademik
Model Industri
Model Generik:
Aaker (1991,1996)
Keller (1993, 1998,
2003)
Campbell (2002)
Netemeyer (2004)
Model Spesifik
(model generik yang
diadaptasi)
Brand Asset Valuator
Brand Dynamics
Equity Engine
Model CBBE Aaker (1991)
• Brand loyalty, yakni tingkat kesetiaan seseorang terhadap sebuah brand,
diwujudkan dalam pembelian yang berulang (repeat purchase)
• Perceived quality, merupakan persepsi konsumen mengenai kualitas dari
produk yang diberi brand tertentu. Dimensi kualitas sangat luas, mencakup
reliabilitas, ketahanan, kualitas bahan, dan kualitas secara keseluruhan.
• Brand awareness, merupakan ukuran dari kepopuleran sebuah brand. Yang
juga didefinisikan sebagai suatu penerimaan konsumen terhadap sebuah
merek dalam benak mereka dimana ditunjukkan dari kemampuan mereka
mengingat dan mengenali kembali sebuah merek ke dalam kategori tertentu.
• Brand association, merupakan resultan/ penjumlahan dari semua ciri terukur
dan ciri tidak terukur yang dimiliki oleh suatu brand; seperti gagasan,
kepercayaan, nilai-nilai, prasangka, dan minat yang membuatnya unik.
Model CBBE Aaker (1996)
• Model 1991 ditambah dengan:
– Market share
– Distribution coverage
– Price Premium
Model CBBE Keller (1993, 1998)
Model CBBE Keller (2003)
Model CBBE Campbell (2002)
Model CBBE Netemeyer (2004)
BrandAsset Valuator Young & Rubicam
BrandDynamics dari Milward Brown
Equity Engine dari Research International
Pemilihan Model
• Model Akademik Generik lebih fleksibel untuk
digunakan
• Model Aaker lebih simpel; Model Keller lebih
sistematik dan memisahkan bagian perusahaan
dan respon konsumen; Model Netemeyer lebih
fokus pada consumer decision making
• Model Industri simpel dan praktis, namun tidak
selalu bisa dipakai di berbagai konteks karena lack
of comparability
INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND (1)
• The importance of brand in
today’s business
• Brand is important but not
well understood
BACKGROUND (2)
• Costly brand investment
• Brand failure
• Hard to imitate brand
success strategy
COURSE FRAMEWORK
1. Brand concept,
strategic brand
management
3. Marketing
communication for
branding
2. Brand equity concept
and brand audit
Brand
Management &
Marketing
Communication
5. Individual mastering of
brand management
concept and strategic
actions
4. Cases of brand
management
6. Global branding
OBJECTIVES
TOPICS
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Introduction to Brand
Strategic Brand Management
Brand equity
Brand positioning
Brand audit
Brand communication
Brand reinforcement
Brand extension
Co-branding strategy
Brand revitalizationand rejuvenation
Brand portfolio strategy
Global branding
Reference: Kevin L. Keller, 2008, Strategic Brand Management, 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall.
LEARNING METHODS
EVALUATION
Forms
Quiz
Tugas dan presentasi kelompok
Tugas individu
Keaktifan dalam diskusi kelas
UTS
UAS
TOTAL
Percentage
5%
25%
10%
10%
25%
25%
100 %
BC
B
AB
A
ACSYS
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Academic Systems (AcSys)
Introduced in 2009
http://acsys.sbm.itb.ac.id (internal)
http://acsys1.sbm.itb.ac.id (external)
Username and Password
Check attachment, assignment,
announcement, score and comments
NEED TO DISCUSS?
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Director Room, MBA ITB Building
Call 022-2504308 ext 126
E-mail [email protected]
From Monday to Friday, 8am – 5pm
BRAND NEWS (1)
BRAND NEWS (2)
BRAND NEWS (3)
HISTORY OF BRAND
• Old Norse word: “Brandr” = “To Burn”
• Greeks and Romans puts their
signatures/symbols on wet claypots
• Pottery communities
TRADITIONAL BRAND DEFINITION
• It’s a mark
• Different forms: name, logo, symbol, design,
or combination of those
• Purpose: to differentiate
• From tangible to intangible
PRACTICAL BRAND DEFINITION
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Set of associations or known descriptions
Stored in people’s mind
Which is represented, at least, by name
From intangible to tangible
Holt (2003): “Brand is perceptual entity,
rooted in reality”
OTHER BRAND DEFINITIONS (1)
De Chernatony (2006)
• Input perspective
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Brand as logo
Brand as identity
Brand as quality indicator
Brand as values
Brand as vision
• Output perspective
– Brand as image
– Brand as relationship
• Time perspective
– Brand is a dynamic entity
OTHER BRAND DEFINITIONS (2)
• Berthon et al. (2007)  Brand Manifold
BRAND EVOLVEMENT
• McEnaly and De Chernatony (1999)
BRAND EVOLVEMENT (2)
• Kunde (2000)
BRANDS VS PRODUCTS
Product
Anything we can offer to a
market for attention,
acquisition, use, or
consumption that might
satisfy a need or want.
Brand
Sum total of consumer
perceptions and feelings about
the product’s attributes and
how they perform, about the
brand name and what it stands
for, and about the company
associated with the brand.
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PRODUCTS VS
BRANDS
Computer
Car
Beverage
Electronic
Appliance
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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRODUCT &
BRAND (1)
Potential
Product
Augmented
Product
Expected
Product
Generic
Product
Core
benefit
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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRODUCT &
BRAND (2)
Branded product
Brand’s intangible
values & imagery
Halo effect
Brand aspiration
Product’s
$$ visible and
differentiating characteristics
Product satisfaction
Expectations
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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRODUCT &
BRAND (3)
Resonance
Core product benefit
Judgments
Feelings
Performance
Imagery
Salience
Brand building equity pyramid
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PRODUCT, BRAND AND CONSUMERS
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Product used to dictates brand. The situation changed now
Brand influences purchase
Brand is perceived and experienced by consumers
Brand used to be company’s belonging, but now it is shared with
consumers
Konsumen
Perusahaan
Produk
Brand
(a)
Konsumen
Perusahaan
Brand
Produk
(b)
Perusahaan
Brand
(c)
Konsumen
BRAND IDENTITY AND IMAGE
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Brand management process:
top-down
Brand vision
and purpose
Core brand
values
Brand perception process:
Bottom-up
Brand personality codes
Semiotic invariants
Strategic benefits and attributes
Physical signature, family resemblance
Product A.. Product B .. Product N .. Typical brand
actions
Permanent fluctuations of the market
Evolution of competition, life stles, technology
MM6016 Branding and Marketing Communication
BRAND CLASSIFICATION
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CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFYING
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Based on brand architecture
Based on entity
Based on product types
Based on customer types
Based on geographic scope
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BASED ON BRAND ARCHITECTURE
Corporate Brand
Family Brand
Individual Brand
Modifier (designating item or model
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AN EXAMPLE
Procter & Gamble
Olay
Olay Total Effects – Olay Natural White – Olay
White Radiance
Olay Total Effects cream – cleanser – eye cream
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BASED ON ENTITY
• Manufacturer brand
• Distributor/retailer brand
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BASED ON PRODUCT TYPES
• Product/Physical goods brand
• Service brand
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BASED ON CUSTOMER TYPE
• B2B brand
• B2C brand
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Brand classification based on geographic scope
• Global brand
• Local brand
CORA MEDIA INTERAKTIVE
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MM6016 Branding and Marketing Communication
STRATEGIC BRAND MANAGEMENT
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CONSIDERATIONS AND STEPS
• Brand Life Cycle
• Davis (2010): brand has to maintain its
relevance
• Kapferer (2008):
STEP 1
• Mental Maps
• Competitive frame of reference
• Points of parity and points of
difference
Identify and Establish
Brand Positioning • Core brand associations
• Brand manatra
and Values
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BRAND ELEMENTS
• Kapferer (2008)
Brand concept (value proposition)
Tangible and intangible
Brand name and symbols
Semiotic invariants
Product or service
Experience
STEP 2
• Mixing and matching of brand
elements
• Integrating brand marketing
activities
Plan and implement • Leveraging secondary associations
Brand marketing
programs
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BRAND MARKETING PROGRAMS
• Davis (2010)
– Communication objectives
– Messages
– Mode (touchpoints)
– Evaluation
– Adjustment
STEP 3
Measure and
interpret brand
performance
• Brand value chain
• Brand audits
• Brand tracking
• Brand equity
management system
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Brand Tracking accross
the brand value chain
Brand Value Chain
Activity & Program
Metrics
Customer Perceptions &
Behavior
Market
Performance
•Marketing Investment
•Program Quality
•Clarity
•Relevance
•Distinctiveness
•Consistency
•Channel expansion
•Brand awareness
•Brand associations
• Perceived quality
•Brand Loyalty
•Sales
•Market share
•Price premium
•Profitability
•Price elasticity
•Expansion success
Scope of
Brand Equity Measurement
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STEP 4
Grow and sustain
brand equity
• Brand-product matrix
• Brand portfoilio and
hierarchies
• Brand expansion strategies
• Brand reinforcement and
revitalization
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