the presentation by Massimiliano Cardinale

Report
Status of Mediterranean resources in European
Waters in 2012
Results for stocks in GSA 1-29 (Mediterranean and Black Sea)
By Max Cardinale* & Giacomo Chato Osio**
*Chairman of STECF-SGMED
** EC JRC, Ispra, Italy
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
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Status of Mediterranean resources in European
Waters in 2012
Guidelines for the evaluation of stock status
Terminology
• Spawning stock biomass (SSB) is the biomass of the adult or
reproducing fish
• Fishing mortality (F) is the proportion of fish in the stock that are
taken by the fisheries
• FMSY is the F associated to high long term yields and the long-term
sustainable exploitation of the stock
• F/FMSY indicates how far each stock is from the MSY target
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
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FAO GFCM sub-areas (GSA’s)
Stock assessment
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
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Historical trend of the assessed stocks
60
Assessment
Forecast
Number of stocks
50
Reference points
40
30
20
10
0
2007
2008
2009
2010
Year
2011
2012
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
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Stock status
compared to
MSY
1.00
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
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Stock status
compared to
MSY by year
1.00
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
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Stock status
compared to
MSY by GSA
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
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Stock status
compared to
MSY by GSA
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
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Stock status
compared
to MSY by
GSA
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
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Stock status
compared to
MSY by groups
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
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Effort trends by
GSA and
country
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
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Unstandardized data from 2012 DCF datacall
Effort trends by
GSA and
country
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
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Unstandardized data from 2012 DCF datacall
Effort trends OF
otter trawlers
Italy
Greece
Spain
France
Malta, Cyprus, Slovenia
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
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Unstandardized data from 2012 DCF datacall
Stock status in the last assessment year compared to
STECF
MSY
GSA
Common name
Species
1
Blue and red shrimp
Aristeus antentus
1
Hake
Merluccius merluccius
1
Red mullet
Mullus barbatus
5
Hake
Merluccius merluccius
5
Norway lobster
Nephrops norvegicus
5
Octopus
Octopus vulgaris
5
Striped red mullet
Mullus surmuletus
6
Angler fish
Lophius budegassa
6
Blue and red shrimp
Aristeus antentus
6
Blue whiting
Micromesistius poutassou
6
Hake
Merluccius merluccius
6
Pink shrimp
Parapeeus longirostris
6
Red mullet
Mullus barbatus
7
White anglerfish
Lophius budegassa
7
Hake
Merluccius merluccius
7
Red mullet
Mullus barbatus
9
Anchovy
Engraulis encrasicolus
9 Blackmouth catshark
Galeus melastomus
9
Blue and red shrimp
Aristeus antentus
9
Blue whiting
Micromesistius poutassou
9
Common Pandora
Pagellus erythrinus
9
Giant red shrimp
Aristaeomorpha foliacea
9
Hake
Merluccius merluccius
9
Norway lobster
Nephrops norvegicus
9
Pink shrimp
Parapeeus longirostris
9
Poor cod
Trisopterus minutus
9
Red mullet
Mullus barbatus
9
Sardine
Sardina pilchardus
9 Spottail mantis shrimp
Squilla mantis
9
Striped red mullet
Mullus surmuletus
2010-2011 % decrease in F
Fcurr Fmsy
1.32 0.29
78
1.37 0.21
85
1.79 0.30
83
1.21 0.16
87
0.55 0.42
24
0.47 0.32
32
0.55 0.26
53
0.72 0.15
79
1.05 0.30
71
1.05 0.32
70
1.30 0.11
92
1.00 0.25
75
1.90 0.38
80
0.97 0.29
70
1.43 0.24
83
1.26 0.51
60
1.00 0.40
60
0.35 0.13
63
0.62 0.32
48
1.12 0.53
53
0.63 0.48
24
1.05 0.50
52
1.32 0.20
85
0.34 0.21
38
0.29 0.70
-141
0.90 0.74
18
0.59 0.47
20
0.41 0.40
2
1.24 0.54
56
0.56 0.31
45
GSA
10
10
10
10
11
11
11
16
16
17
17
17
17
18
18
18
18
18
22
22
25
29
29
29
29
15-16
15-16
15-16
15-16
Common name
Species
Hake
Merluccius merluccius
Pink shrimp
Parapeeus longirostris
Red mullet
Mullus barbatus
Spottail mantis shrimp
Squilla mantis
Giant red shrimp
Aristaeomorpha foliacea
Hake
Merluccius merluccius
Pink shrimp
Parapeeus longirostris
Anchovy
Engraulis encrasicolus
Sardine
Sardina pilchardus
Common sole
Solea solea
Red mullet
Mullus barbatus
Sardine
Sardi pilchardus
Spottail mantis shrimp
Squilla mantis
Hake
Merluccius merluccius
Norway lobster
Nephrops norvegicus
Pink shrimp
Parapeeus longirostris
Red mullet
Mullus barbatus
Spottail mantis shrimp
Squilla mantis
Anchovy
Engraulis encrasicolus
Sardine
Sardina pilchardus
Picarel
Spicara smaris
Anchovy
Engraulis encrasicolus
Sprat
Sprattus sprattus
Turbot
Psetta maxima
Whiting
Merlangius merlangus
Common Pandora
Pagellus erythrinus
Giant red shrimp
Aristaeomorpha foliacea
Red mullet
Mullus barbatus
Black bellied anglerfish
Lophius budegassa
2010-2011 % decrease in F
Fcurr Fmsy
0.63
1.11
1.01
1.08
0.98
0.69
0.69
0.50
0.17
1.20
0.71
0.39
1.00
0.86
0.54
1.45
1.50
1.04
0.38
0.48
0.08
0.62
0.38
0.70
0.59
0.72
1.09
1.30
0.30
0.17
0.60
0.40
0.41
0.49
0.26
0.49
0.40
0.40
0.26
0.36
0.40
0.30
0.21
0.30
0.70
0.50
0.27
0.40
0.40
0.31
0.41
0.40
0.18
0.40
0.30
0.40
0.45
0.16
Around 90% of analysed Mediterranean stocks are estimated to be exploited
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unsustainably in 2010-2011
73
46
60
62
50
62
29
20
-135
78
49
-3
70
76
44
52
67
74
-5
17
-288
34
-5
74
32
58
63
65
47
Stock status in the last assessment year compared to
GFCM
MSY
GSA
Species
1
5
5
5
6
6
6
7
7
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
16
17
18
25
25
25
26
12-16
15-16
15-16
15-16
Merluccius merluccius
Merluccius merluccius
Mullus surmulletus
Aristaeus antennatus
Mullus barbatus
Aristaeus antennatus
Parapenaeus longirostris
Merluccius merluccius
Mullus barbatus
Merluccius merluccius
Mullus barbatus
Mullus surmulletus
Galeus melastomus
Aristaeus antennatus
Nephrops norvegicus
Parapenaeus longirostris
Raja asterias
Raja clavata
Scyliorhinus canicula
Raja clavata
Solea solea
Merluccius merluccius
Mullus barbatus
Mullus surmulletus
Boops boops
Pagellus erythrinus
Parapenaeus longirostris
Mullus barbatus
Pagellus erythrinus
Aristaeomorpha foliacea
Year period FMSY
Fcurr
FMSY /Fcurr
Status
% reduction in F
2002-2010
2001-2010
2001-2010
1992-2010
1995-2010
1996-2010
2001-2010
1998-2010
2004-2010
2005-2010
1994-2010
2009-2010
2009-2010
2009-2010
2006-2010
2006-2010
1994-2010
1994-2010
1994-2010
1994-2010
2005-2010
1994-2010
2005-2010
2009-2010
2005-2010
2006-2007
2007-2010
1994-2010
1994-2010
1994-2010
1.33
1.21
0.55
0.59
0.72
1.33
1.14
1.43
0.85
1.75
0.54
0.64
0.35
0.62
0.35
0.40
0.49
0.23
0.33
0.13
1.27
0.87
0.45
0.46
0.37
0.64
1.21
0.78
0.60
1.00
6.65
7.56
2.12
3.93
3.60
4.75
3.80
7.53
1.89
7.95
1.15
1.81
3.18
1.94
1.67
0.51
1.00
3.03
2.54
1.30
5.08
4.14
1.35
2.02
1.48
2.23
1.27
1.73
2.00
2.50
Overexploited
Overexploited
Overexploited
Overexploited
Overexploited
Overexploited
Overexploited
Overexploited
Overexploited
Overexploited
Overexploited
Overexploited
Overexploited
Overexploited
Overexploited
Sustainable
Sustainable
Overexploited
Overexploited
Overexploited
Overexploited
Overexploited
Overexploited
Overexploited
Overexploited
Overexploited
Overexploited
Overexploited
Overexploited
Overexploited
85
87
53
75
72
79
74
87
47
87
13
45
69
48
40
-95
0
67
61
23
80
76
26
51
32
55
21
42
50
60
0.20
0.16
0.26
0.15
0.20
0.28
0.30
0.19
0.45
0.22
0.47
0.35
0.11
0.32
0.21
0.78
0.49
0.08
0.13
0.10
0.25
0.21
0.33
0.23
0.25
0.29
0.95
0.45
0.30
0.40
Around 93% of the analysed Mediterranean stocks are estimated to be
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
exploited unsustainably in 2007-2010
www.slu.se
Recovery potential of Mediterranean stocks
Hake GSA 06
10% reduction of F per year, MSY in 2020
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
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Recovery potential of Mediterranean stocks
Red Mullet GSA 06
10% reduction of F per year, MSY in 2015
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
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Recovery potential of Mediterranean stocks
Hake GSA 09
10% reduction of F per year, MSY in 2015
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
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Current selectivity compared to the optimal one
20000
15000
300
Hake
Gsa 7
200
10000
16000
Solea
Gsa 17
250
12000
150
Sardine
Gsa 22
8000
100
5000
4000
50
0
0
18.3
49.3
68.6
80.7
88.2
92.9
0
13.6 18.8 26.2 31.0 34.0 36.0 37.3 38.1
6.2
10.5
13.4
15.4
16.7
17.6
2000
Red mullet
1500 Gsa 6
1000
500
0
200
16000
Striped red mullet
150 Gsa 5
12000
100
8000
50
4000
0
3.8
17.9
26.1
30.2
32.3
33.4
33.9
13.0
18.9
24.8
80
400
60
Pink shrimp
300 Gsa 9
Norway lobster
Gsa 9
40
200
20
100
0
29.1
32.1
34.3
21.3
36.5
47.3
55.0
Fopt
FMSY
Fcurr
60.5
64.4
9.3
19.6
30.4
36.3
0
35.9
0
2.5
39.6
Anchovy
Gsa 7
9.4
11.0
13.4
15.1
16.3
17.1
800
700 Giant red shrimp
600 Gsa 16
500
400
300
200
100
0
16.5 30.3 40.4 47.9 53.4 57.5 60.5 62.7 64.3 65.5
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
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Colloca, Cardinale et al. Fish and Fisheries, 2011
Changes in yield for different fishing selectivity regime
800
FMSY/Fcurr
FLopt/Fcurr
Demersal fish stocks
700
600
500
400
300
%
200
100
2
SR 5
M
05
SO
L
17
M
U
11
R
M
U
09
R
R
M
U
07
06
M
U
R
M
U
05
R
M
U
01
R
9
M
U
R
KE
1
6
H
&1
15
10
H
KE
KE
09
H
KE
07
H
KE
KE
06
H
H
-100
H
KE
05
0
Colloca, Cardinale et al. Fish and Fisheries, 2011
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
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Status of Mediterranean and Black Sea marine
resources
State of the art
• State of knowledge on the Mediterranean and Black Sea stocks is
improving rapidly
• Between 90% and 93% of the stocks analysed is overexploited
compared to FMSY
• Current size at capture is much smaller than both L50 and Lopt
• Reducing F will not reach MSY without changes in selectivity
•Observed reduction in nominal effort did not result in a decline in F
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
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Status of Mediterranean and Black Sea marine
resources
Immediate actions
• Reduce F for all demersal fisheries through reduction in effort
or/and catches
• Implement a TAC system for small pelagics
• Modify gear selectivity to move towards MSY
• Several stocks are shared fisheries/stocks with non EU contries and
thus a strong coordination and collaboration between GFCM-SAC
and SGMED is crucial in the future
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
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Status of Mediterranean and Black Sea marine
resources
Way forward
• Changes in selectivity would increase the revenue of the fleet
compared to both Fcurr and FMSY while assuring sustainable high long
term yield
• Size selective harvesting can achieve several of the objectives of
EAFM and it would represent the natural step forward after the
implementation of the MSY framework
•Effort reduction have been, so far, inefficient to limit F
•For small pelagics, TAC are considered by STECF the appropriate
management measure
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
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Assessment of Mediterranean marine resources
Major data inconsistencies
• The landings appear incompletely reported for some important part of the fleet
(e.g. gillnetting and longlines)
• Landings are often reported differently to different fora (FAO, EU, etc.)
• Discard data are very scarce and thus rarely used in assessment
• Time series are short and the reconstruction of historical data would be crucial
to estimate biomass baselines for management
• Collection of data, assessment and management should be at the stock unit
level, which not necessarily match with the GSA classification
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
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