Breathing Patterns • • • • • • Orthopnea – breath better sitting up Hyperpnea – Deep breathing Hypopnea – Shallow breathing Tachypnea – Rapid Breathing Dyspnea – Labored Breathing Hyperventilation – a breathing pattern resulting in a lowering of the PaCO2 level Biot’s Breathing • Biot's respiration, sometimes also called cluster respiration,] is an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by groups of quick, shallow inspirations followed by regular or irregular periods of apnea. • It generally indicates a poor prognosis. • Biot's respiration is caused by damage to the medulla oblongata due to strokes or trauma or by pressure on the medulla due to uncal or tentorial herniation. Cheyne-Stokes • an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by oscillation of ventilation between apnea and tachypnea with a crescendo-decrescendo pattern in the depth of respirations, to compensate for changing serum partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide. • This abnormal pattern of breathing, in which breathing is absent for a period and then rapid for a period, can be seen in patients with heart failurestrokes, traumatic brain injuries and brain tumors. In some instances, it can occur in otherwise healthy people during sleep at high altitudes. It can occur in all forms of toxic metabolic encephalopathy. It is a symptom of carbon monoxide poisoning, along with syncope or coma. This type of respiration is also often seen after morphine administration. Kussmal Breathing • deep and labored breathing pattern often associated with severe metabolic acidosis, particularly diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) but also renal failure. It is a form of hyperventilation, breathing which is increased above the normal rate. • In metabolic acidosis, breathing is first rapid and shallow but as acidosis worsens, breathing gradually becomes deep, slow, labored and gasping. The term is never used in conjunction with respiratory acidosis, because breathing is shallow and slow in those cases (decreased excretion of CO2).