Breathing Patterns
Orthopnea – breath better sitting up
Hyperpnea – Deep breathing
Hypopnea – Shallow breathing
Tachypnea – Rapid Breathing
Dyspnea – Labored Breathing
Hyperventilation – a breathing pattern
resulting in a lowering of the PaCO2 level
Biot’s Breathing
• Biot's respiration, sometimes also called
cluster respiration,] is an abnormal pattern of
breathing characterized by groups of quick,
shallow inspirations followed by regular or
irregular periods of apnea.
• It generally indicates a poor prognosis.
• Biot's respiration is caused by damage to the
medulla oblongata due to strokes or trauma or
by pressure on the medulla due to uncal or
tentorial herniation.
• an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by
oscillation of ventilation between apnea and tachypnea
with a crescendo-decrescendo pattern in the depth of
respirations, to compensate for changing serum partial
pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
• This abnormal pattern of breathing, in which breathing
is absent for a period and then rapid for a period, can
be seen in patients with heart failurestrokes, traumatic
brain injuries and brain tumors. In some instances, it
can occur in otherwise healthy people during sleep at
high altitudes. It can occur in all forms of toxic
metabolic encephalopathy.[6] It is a symptom of carbon
monoxide poisoning, along with syncope or coma. This
type of respiration is also often seen after morphine
Kussmal Breathing
• deep and labored breathing pattern often
associated with severe metabolic acidosis,
particularly diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) but also
renal failure. It is a form of hyperventilation,
breathing which is increased above the normal
• In metabolic acidosis, breathing is first rapid and
shallow but as acidosis worsens, breathing
gradually becomes deep, slow, labored and
gasping. The term is never used in conjunction
with respiratory acidosis, because breathing is
shallow and slow in those cases (decreased
excretion of CO2).

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