AQA AS Physical Education

Report
Just for the Geographers!!!
Applied exercise physiology in
practical situations
Training principles
S pecificty
P rogression
O verload
R eversibility
T edium
F
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T
requency
ntensity
ype
ime
Types of training
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2.
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Continuous -aerobic
Intermittent or interval - anaerobic variable
Weights - strength
Circuits – variable
Plyometrics - power
Mobility - flexibility
Time for Training
Aerobic – depends on fitness:
• Starting - 20-30 mins
• Fit – 45-60 mins
Anaerobic – depends on intensity :
• 45-60 mins, but can be only 20-30 mins
Measuring intensity
• Heart rate – % of max HR
• Borg scale - subjective
• 1 rep max - strength
Overtraining
• Fitness - lost quicker than gained
• Guideline – 2 weeks off –3-4 weeks to regain
• Symptoms:
moodiness
altered sleep patterns
loss of appetite
loss of motivation
continuous muscle soreness
continuous fatigue
recurring minor injuries
Fitness testing – why?
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Provides measurement of starting level
Shows strengths and weaknesses
Shows improvements
Provides motivation
Measures success of training
Provides variation
Ethics of fitness testing
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Effects may interfere with programme
May cause fatigue
May cause injury
Results may cause psychological harm
Fitness test requirements
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Specific to sport
Valid
Reliable
Accurate
Sensitive
Making tests specific
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Use same energy system
Use same method of locomotion
Use same intensity
Use same directions of movement
Involve same equipment
Making tests valid and Reliable
• Valid - should measure what it’s
supposed to measure
• Links to specificity – test protocol
same as action used in activity
• Reliable – when repeated - similar results
• Differences in results due to
changes in fitness, not variations in test
• Limitations to accuracy of measurements
Maximal and sub-maximal tests
• Based on stamina tests
• Maximal – subject works to exhaustion ,
e.g. multi-stage fitness test
• More accurate , but problems of fatigue ,
injury and need for motivation
• Sub-maximal – not to exhaustion , e.g.
walking tests and step tests
• Limited accuracy ; estimate stamina
Health-related fitness tests
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Stamina – multi-stage fitness test
Muscular endurance – sit-ups test
Strength – dynamometer test
Flexibility – sit and reach test
Body composition – bioelectrical impedance
Skill-related fitness tests
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Power – Sergeant jump test
Speed – 20-metre sprint
Agility – Illinois agility run test
Reaction time – ruler drop test
Balance – Stork stand test
Co-ordination – Anderson ball catch test
Warm up - benefits
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Better oxygen delivery
Faster metabolism (chemical reactions)
Improved blood flow
Increased sensitivity
Increased efficiency of heart
Improved psychological preparation
Movement rehearsal
Reduces injuries
Warm up - content
• General warm up – jogging to raise
heart rate
• Stretching – to reduce injury and relax
• Specific exercises of increasing intensity –
to rehearse skills/movement
• Psychological preparation – anxiety
control
Types of stretching
• Active – hold stretched position
• Passive – stretch held by partner or self
• Static – stretch held and isometric
contractions applied
• Ballistic – stretch by bouncing
Cool down
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Clears waste products
Reduces chance of DOMS
Prevents blood pooling
Reduces adrenaline levels
Allows heart rate to fall
Continuous training
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Trainsaerobic systems
Running, cycling, rowing, swimming
‘Steady state’ exercise
Aim for 70% of maximum effort
Heart rate close to 130/140 bpm
Use Borg scale 13-15
Intermittent training
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Alternate periods of effort and recovery
More workload than continuous
High variety possible
Interval training - vary
– Intensity
Duration
Recovery
Number of repetitions
Circuit training
• Series of exercises performed one after
the other – ‘stations’
• Very variable
• Usually 8-12 stations
• 1 minute per station
• 2-4 laps
• Rest – timed or in between stations
Weight training
• Can improve:
strength
power
muscular endurance
speed
• Based on overload
• Use machines and free weights
Plyometric training
• Power training
• Eccentric stretch to ‘load’ muscle
• Stronger concentric contraction follows
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Mobility training
• Static exercises best as part of cool down
• Dynamic better – stimulate muscle and
tendon sense organs
• Gradually increase speed and range
‘Train not strain’

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