I will - Appomattox County Public Schools

Report
THINKING GOES TO SCHOOL
Research Strategies that Produce Positive Results
Prepared for the
History and Social Science Professional Learning Community of the
Virginia School-University Partnership
by Dan Mulligan, Ed. D.
February 2011
Personal Learning Goals
I will recognize the new emphasis on content in the
new History & Social Science SOL;
I will understand the new emphasis on vocabulary
contained in the new History & Social Science SOL;
I will identify the new emphasis on skills embedded
in the new History & Social Science SOL;
I will create learning environments that both build
background knowledge and foster reasoning and
critical thinking; and
I will enjoy working with my colleagues!
“Seven Survival Skills for the New Economy”
~Tony Wagner, The Global Achievement Gap
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Critical Thinking and Problem-Solving
Collaboration across Networks and Leading by Influence
Agility and Adaptability
Initiative and Entrepreneurialism
Effective Oral and Written Communication
Accessing and Analyzing Information
Curiosity and Imagination
“Rigor” is using academic knowledge to create new knowledge/
content and to solve real problems.
“Engagement” begins with the MIND, not with the HANDS (that
is a very loose paraphrase) — activities & action do not equal
“rigor”
http://epals.com
MOVING from ETCH-a SKETCH Learning
Don’t let the
‘what’
overshadow
the ‘how!’
to Each STUDENT UNDERSTANDING
page
2
Opportunity to Learn
Has the strongest relationship with student achievement of all school-level
factors.
What Works in Schools, ASCD
Three types of curricula were identified:
The Intended Curriculum: content/skill specified by the
state, division, or school at a particular grade level.
The Implemented Curriculum: content/skill actually
delivered by the teacher.
The Attained Curriculum: content/skill actually learned
by the students.
Intended
Curriculum
Implemented
Curriculum
Attained
Curriculum
Content-Related Evidence of Validity
(Intended Curriculum)
Essential
Essential
Skills
Knowledge
Learning
TARGET
(content
validity)
Essential
Vocabulary
Essential Vocabulary
Essential Knowledge
Essential Skills
Explain the meaning of totalitarianism.
What factors led to the Holocaust?
Compare the genocide of the Armenians and the Tutsis.
http://www.nysedregents.org
There are three parts to
any research-based
lesson:
•Beginning – ‘check for’ and ‘build’
background knowledge of each
student; (BL)
•During – teach and actively engage
each student in new content –
making connections to prior
knowledge; (DL)
•End – check for understanding provide each student with an
opportunity to summarize (in their
own way) and practice the essential
knowledge and skills conveyed in the
lesson. (EL)
democracy
PAGE
16
SAMPLE
Pre-assessment
that includes
differentiation
Mix it Up
in the Box
Listen for the topic and the amount of time;
Silently mix around the room;
When directed, pair up with person closest to
you;
In pairs, Partner A shares and Partner B
listens;
Partner B responds to what he/she heard by
paraphrasing: “LET ME TELL YOU WHAT I
UNDERSTOOD YOU TO SAY”;
Record summary of partners response; then
Switch Roles
1
What is an action taken by you,
your grade-level/department or
your school that you attribute
to resulting in increased
understanding of history for
each student impacted by the
action last year?
3
Look at the picture above.
How does this picture relate to
your role as a teacher of
history? Complete this
sentence: The image is like my
teaching in that_______
2
Describe the process
currently used to adjust
classroom assessments for
the new history SOL? What
do people ‘do’ with the
results?
1
What is an action taken by you,
your grade-level/department or
your school that you attribute
to resulting in increased
understanding of history for
each student impacted by the
action last year?
3
Look at the picture above.
How does this picture relate to
your role as a teacher of
history? Complete this
sentence: The image is like my
teaching in that_______
2
Describe the process
currently used to create
classroom assessments for
the new history SOL? What
do people ‘do’ with the
results?
Principle #1 Grounding the
Workshop:
“Never say anything to a student they
can say themselves.”
“If you don’t know where you are and you don’t know
where you are going, anything you do will get you there”
HUNT for SOLUTIONS
Record your responses on the smaller Post-it
Notes and in a team list…
In Virginia’s Public Schools:
1. The % of ALL students scoring Advanced on the Civics and
Economics tests in 2010.
35
2. The % of Poverty students scoring Advanced on the Civics and
Economics tests in 2010.
19
3. The % of SWD scoring Advanced on the Civics and Economics
tests in 2010.
15
4. According to the Silent Epidemic, the % of U.S. dropouts who felt
they were ‘too far behind’ by the end of elementary school.
51
5. The % of ALL students Advanced on the VA & US History tests in
2010.
41
6. The % of Poverty students Advanced on the VA & US History tests
in 2010.
23
7. The % of SWD students Advanced on the VA & US History tests in
2010.
SOLUTIONS:
15,
18,
19,
23,
35,
41,
51
18
1
3
What is an action taken by you,
your grade-level/department or
your school that you attribute to
resulting in increased
understanding of history for
each student impacted by the
action last year?
Look at the picture above. How
does this picture relate to your
role as a teacher of history?
Complete this sentence: The
image is like my teaching in
that_______
2
Describe the process
currently used to adjust
classroom assessments for
the new history SOL? What
do people ‘do’ with the
results?
When students know what
they are learning, their
performance, on average,
has been shown to be
27 percentile points
higher
than students who do not
know what they are
learning.
Organizing Student Thinking
Category
Ave. Effect Percentile
Gain
Size (ES)
Identify similarities & differences
1.61
45
Summarizing & note taking
1.00
34
Reinforcing effort & providing
recognition
.80
29
Homework & practice
.77
28
Nonlinguistic representations
.75
27
Cooperative learning
.73
27
*Setting objectives & providing
feedback*
.61
23
Generating & testing hypotheses
.61
23
Questions, cues, & advance organizers
.59
22
Building Academic Vocabulary
Knowledge of important terms is critical to
understanding any subject.
The more terms a person knows about a
subject, the easier it is to understand –
and learn – new information related to that
subject.
Find a new friend in the room. Introduce
yourself and share what you ‘do’. Find 2
comfortable seats and relax.
WHY ACADEMIC VOCABULARY?
 Find another 4-second partner
 Tell them who you are and one summer joy;
 Find 2 seats.
 Tell a chain story about the process of
photosynthesis…
 …without using words that begin with:
P,
L,
T,
S
A Six-Step Process for
Teaching New Terms
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
Provide a description, explanation, or example of the
new term;
Ask students to restate the description, explanation, or
example in their own words;
Ask students to construct a picture, symbol, or graphic
representing the term or phrase;
Engage students periodically in activities that will help
them add to their knowledge of the terms in their
notebooks;
Periodically ask students to discuss the terms with one
another; and
Involve students periodically in games that allow them
to play with terms.
Research on Imagery as Elaboration
Students who used imagery to learn
vocabulary, on average, performed
# of
studies
6
37 percentile pts. higher
than…
…students who kept
repeating definitions.
4
21 percentile pts. higher
than…
…students who were
using the terms in a
sentence.
Organizing Theme:
FAMOUS
PEOPLE OF
2010
EDITION
Things someone
would say…
The Queen of England
200 POINTS
The Chilean
Hillary
Coal Miners
Clinton
100 POINTS
100 POINTS
Sara Palin Mark Zuckerburg Michelle Obama
50 POINTS
50 POINTS
50 POINTS
U.S. History:
1865 to Present
NATIONALISM
200 POINTS
DISCRIMINATION
TENEMENTS
100 POINTS
100 POINTS
ORGANIZED LABOR
50 POINTS
CIVIL LIBERTIES
50 POINTS
IMMIGRATION
50 POINTS
Great Sites for Images
http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/index.htm
Elementary Resources:
www.greenecountyschools.com
Students, Parents
Our Schools:
Greene County Primary
Secondary Resources:
http://www.appomattox.schoolfusion.us/
Instruction
Curriculum Resources
Dan Mulligan
200 POINTS
100 POINTS
50 POINTS
100 POINTS
50 POINTS
50 POINTS
Category
Ave. Effect
Size (ES)
Percentile
Gain
Identify similarities & differences
1.61
45
Summarizing & note taking
1.00
34
Reinforcing effort & providing
recognition
.80
29
Homework & practice
.77
28
Nonlinguistic representations
.75
27
Cooperative learning
.73
27
Setting objectives & providing
feedback
.61
23
Generating & testing hypotheses
.61
23
Questions, cues, & advance
organizers
.59
22
Page
19
Summarizing and Note Taking
Approaches to this strategy in the classroom:
– Teaching students the rule-based summarizing
strategies,
– Using summary frames, and
– Teaching students reciprocal teaching and groupenhanced summary.
What does it look like?
– Take out material that is NOT important for
understanding,
– Take out words that repeat information,
– Replace a list of things with a word that describes the
things in the list (e.g., use trees for elm, oak, and maple).
– Find a topic sentence. If you cannot find a topic
sentence, make one up.
Summarizing and Note Taking
Generalizations form the research:
– Verbatim note-taking is, perhaps, the least
effective technique.
– Notes should be considered a work in progress.
– Notes should be used as a study guide for tests.
– The more notes that are taken, the better.
Instructional Strategies that Facilitate
Successful Inclusion Must …
Supply students with STRUCTURE and
ORGANIZATION
Encourage student COMMUNICATION
and COLLABORATION
Provide students with VISUAL and
HANDS-ON learning experiences
C
O
V
E
R
Allow students to
personalize their notebook
with a cover collage.
Preserve with packing tape.
MIND Notebook Rubric
Essential Components of the
History and Social Science SOL
http://visualblooms.wikispaces.com
CUBING
1.Remember it.
2010
(Describe its colors, shapes, and sizes. What
does it look like?)
2.Understand it.
3.Apply it.
(What does it make you think of?)
(What can you do with it? How is it used?)
4.Analyze it.
(How is it made or what is it composed of?)
5.Evaluate it.
6.Create it.
(Take a stand and list reasons for supporting it.)
(Generate a new version of it. How is it an
improvement from the original?)
Virginia SOL Verbs

PROBLEM SOLVING
Analyze
Predict

Discover
Survey
Evaluate
Verify
Explore
Investigate
Compare
Explain
Hypothesize
Validate
Contrast
Generalize
Predict
Summarize
Differentiate
Interpret
Infer
REASONING
Categorize
Describe
Justify
Prioritize

Derive
Solve
Classify
Estimate
Order
Rank
COMMUNICATION
Clarify
Correspond
Describe
Discuss
Demonstrate
Exhibit
Restate
Explain
Show
Express
Speak
Persuade
State
Portray
Write
KEY QUESTION: Why are common
assessments so important?
WHY do we ASSESS:
1. INFORM INSTRUCTIONAL
DECISIONS
2.
ENCOURAGE STUDENTS TO
TRY
“You can enhance or destroy students’ desire to succeed in
school more quickly and permanently through your use of
assessment than with any other tools you have at your
disposal.”
Rick Stiggins, Assessment Trainers
Talk to Me…
Directions
– Form a team of EIGHT (8) people…
– Determine the person with the most sisters and
then send them to pick-up your team ziplock bag…
PLEASE DO NOT OPEN!!!
– Determine the person with the least sisters and
send them to pick-up a grid sheet for each person.
– Distribute a grid sheet to each team member.
Follow-up Debriefing
Each pair should share with your other team members
the method you used to graph the figure.
Discuss with your team:
– Which method appeals to you?
– Is there another method that you would prefer?
Prepare for a “pairs choice of method” with a new
graph.
Key Question
Did your performance on the second
attempt to complete the grid exercise
improve after having an opportunity to
self-assess your initial strategy?
Formative Assessment
Formative assessment is the process used
by teachers and students during instruction
that provides feedback to adjust teaching
and learning for the purpose of improving
student learning.
Council of Chief State School Officers, October 2006
Notes:
Process rather than a particular test….
It is not the nature of the test itself that makes it formative or summative…it is
the use to which those results will be put.
Thank you for your commitment
to children!
"It's your attitude, not
just your aptitude that
determines your
ultimate altitude."
--Zig Ziglar 
Dan
e4ae.com
BLIND SEQUENCING
HIGH-Yield Instructional Strategies
Category
Ave. Effect
Size (ES)
Percentile
Gain
Identify similarities & differences
1.61
45
Summarizing & note taking
1.00
34
Reinforcing effort & providing
recognition
.80
29
Homework & practice
.77
28
Nonlinguistic representations
.75
27
Cooperative learning
.73
27
Setting objectives & providing
feedback
.61
23
Generating & testing hypotheses
.61
23
Questions, cues, & advance
organizers
.59
22
Effective Instruction #1:
consistently uses collaborative learning
Group Work
Collaborative Learning
Looks Like
Each student has the
same information as
every other team member.
Each student has unique
information necessary for the
team to compete the task.
I know that George
Washington was a brave
leader of soldiers.
Each student has the
same role as every other
team member.
Each student has a unique role My task is to lead the group
in the group.
map that will illustrate the
location of major events in
George Washington’s life.
Jigsaw is not needed
since each team member
can work independent of
others and still
accomplish the task.
Jigsaw can be used to build
student understanding of their
unique role in the group.
During the activity, I will meet
with the member from each
group that shares my role of
mapmaker and we will discuss
strategies.
Students develop own
understandings and
solutions.
Students work jointly to
develop understandings and
solutions.
Turn to your neighbor and
decide what is the most
important contribution of
George Washington.
Imagine yourself living in
Name a region of Virginia.
the region. In what
occupation would you or
a family member be
employed? Explain?
Tell a
resource found
in this region.
Close your eyes and
imagine yourself in the
region. Describe what
your mind visualizes that
makes the region
distinct.
Reflect on Your Strengths and Opportunities to Improve
When Working With Others
Principle #1 Grounding the
Workshop:
“Never say anything to a student they
can say themselves.”
Category
Ave. Effect Percentile
Gain
Size (ES)
Identify similarities & differences
1.61
45
Summarizing & note taking
1.00
34
Reinforcing effort & providing
recognition
.80
29
Homework & practice
.77
28
Nonlinguistic representations
.75
27
Cooperative learning
.73
27
*Setting objectives & providing
feedback*
.61
23
Generating & testing hypotheses
.61
23
Questions, cues, & advance organizers
.59
22
Knowing the Learner
Directions: Rank the symbols (1-4) in order from most (1) like
you as a learner to least (4) like you as a learner.
Learning Style of Beach Balls
Experimentation
Risk taking
Adventurous
Intuitive/Insightful
Creative
Spontaneous
Attitudes
Don’t like step-by-step directions
React to internal and external
rewards
Want to improve things for society
Needs
Guidelines
Boundaries
Expectations
Standards
Parameters
Help in Focusing
Preferences
Stimulus-rich environment
Options and alternatives
Interesting and exciting learning
Knowing the Learner
Strengths
Learning Style of Microscopes
See the big picture
Home in on main points
Learn from lecture and reading
Think in abstract terms and
language
Analyze theories and information
Thorough logical learners
Can delay gratification
Attitudes
Don’t like to waste time “pooling
ignorance”
Don’t like inquiry
Needs
Help in working with others
Help in organizing time and bringing
closure
Preferences
Vicarious learning
Simulations
Analytical thinking
Expert information
Feedback that will improve grades
Knowing the Learner
Strengths
Learning Style of Clipboards
Precision and accuracy
Striving for perfection
Practicality
Compliance with teacher
Sensory responsive
Externally motivated
Delay gratification
Attitudes
No news is good news
Serious about their work
Require feedback
Needs
Real experiences
Concrete examples, not theory
Structure
Procedures, routines
Directions
Preferences
Precise, useful feedback
Recommendations
Appreciate privacy
Knowing the Learner
Strengths
Learning Style of Puppies
Empathic
Intuitive
Subjective, abstract, affective
Read between the lines
See the gestalt
Attitudes
Internal motivation
Self-monitoring toward personal
criteria
Require rationale for learning
Can block out stimuli
Needs
Opportunities to work with others
Time for self-reflection
To connect with teacher and peers
Rationale for learning
Preferences
Subjective versus abstract
Personal incentives,
encouragement
Choice of learning environments
Knowing the Learner
Strengths
“If an educator keeps using the
same strategies over and over
and the student keeps failing,
who really is the slow learner?”
Musical/Rhythmic
Sing it
Create a beat
Rap it
Make a cheer
Create a jingle
Hum it
Identify sounds
React to sounds
Listen to sounds
Connect to music
Write a poem
Verbal/Linguistic
Read it
Spell it
Write it
Listen to it
Tell it
Recall it
Use “you” words
Apply it
Chunk information
Say it
Use mnemonics
Logical/Mathematical
Make a pattern
Chart it
Sequence it
Create a mnemonic
Analyze it
Think abstractly
Think critically
Use numbers
Prove it
Interpret the data
Use the statistics
Body/Kinesthetic
Role play
Walkabout
Dance
Lip sync
Skits/charades/mimes
Construction
Math manipulatives
Sign language
Sports
Activity centers
Body language
Intrapersonal
Metacognition
Use self-talk
Work independently
Solve in your own way
Understand self
Journal it
Rehearse it
Use prior knowledge
Connect it
Have ownership
Interpersonal
Think-Pair-Share
Jigsaw
Cooperative grouping
Drama
Debates
Class meetings
Role play
Meeting of minds
Peer counseling
Tutors/buddies
Giving feedback
Shared Journals
Visual/Spatial
Mind maps
Graphic organizers
Video
Color code
Highlight
Shape a word
Interpret a graphic
Read a chart
Study illustrations
Visualize it
Make a chart
Create a poster
Naturalist
Label it
Categorize it
Identify it
Form a hypothesis
Do an experiment
Adapt it
Construct it
Classify it
Investigate it
Discern patterns
Choice Board or Tic-Tac-Toe
Choice Board or Tic-Tac-Toe
Verbal/Linguistic
Body/Kinesthetic
Visual/Spatial
Wild Card
Musical/Rhythmical
Intrapersonal
Your choice after
getting the approval of
the teacher.
Interpersonal
Naturalist
Logical/Mathematical
Kinds of Evidence – Continuum of Evidence
Informal Check for Understanding
Imagine yourself living in
Name a region of Virginia.
the region. In what
occupation would you or
a family member be
employed? Explain?
Tell a
resource found
in this region.
Close your eyes and
imagine yourself in the
region. Describe what
your mind visualizes that
makes the region
distinct.
Effective Instruction #2:
focuses on essential knowledge and essential skills
Three types of curricula exist in any classroom:
The Intended Curriculum: content/skill specified by the
state, division, or school at a particular grade level.
The Implemented Curriculum: content/skill actually
delivered by the teacher.
The Attained Curriculum: content/skill actually learned
by the students.
Intended
Curriculum
Montana Content
Standards and
PerformanceDescriptors
Implemented
Curriculum
Attained
Curriculum
Content-Related Evidence of Validity
(Attained Curriculum)
Essential
Essential
Skills &
Processes
Knowledge
LEARNING
TARGET
(attained curriculum)
Essential
Vocabulary
True learning is figuring out what you already
know in order to go beyond
what you already think.
Jerome Bruner
The Power of Student Self-assessment
to Refine Teacher Craft
Find a new friend in the room. Introduce
yourself and share what you ‘do’. Find 2
comfortable seats and relax.
BRAIN BREAK
Select Team Leaders
DO
OR

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