301:Engaging Clients from a Strength-Based, Solution

Report
301:Engaging Clients from a Strength-Based,
Solution-Focused Perspective
Learning Objectives:
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Identify the conditions for establishing
effective engagement with clients;
Connect the engagement process with the
appropriate application of protective authority
to establish the collaborative/protective
partnership;
Identify the elements of the solution-focused
intervention model that distinguish it from the
more typical problem-focused approach;
Identify seven key solution-focused strategies;
Identify the appropriate use of solutionfocused skills and questions; and
Identify opportunities to implement the
solution-focused interviewing and intervention
approach with child welfare clients.
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center
301:Engaging Clients from A Strength-Based, Solution-Focused Perspective
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Agenda
• Brief Introductions and Workshop Overview
• Engagement in the Context of Strength-Based
Child Welfare Practice
• Protective Authority
• Introduction to the Solution-Focused Approach: History,
Values and the 7 Key Strategies
• Introduction to the Solution-Focused Foundational Skills
and Questions
• Demonstration of the Strength-Based, Solution-Focused
Strategies and Skills
• Summary and Transfer of Learning
• Evaluation and Closing
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301:Engaging Clients from A Strength-Based, Solution-Focused Perspective
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Professionalism:
Professional Practice
• Clear Mission
• Shared Values
• Practice Standards
• Relevant Knowledge
and Skill
• Results-oriented
• Self-assessment
• Ongoing
Improvement
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Professional
Interview
• Give and get
information
• Initiate/maintain
client engagement
• Initiate/sustain
movement toward
solutions
301:Engaging Clients from A Strength-Based, Solution-Focused Perspective
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Strengths
• What people have learned about
themselves, others and their world
• Personal qualities, traits and virtues
• What people know about the world
around them
• The talents people have
• Cultural and personal stories and lore
• Pride
• The community
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center
301:Engaging Clients from A Strength-Based, Solution-Focused Perspective
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Types of Strengths
• Mitigating Strengths: protect children from
threats to safety
• Risk-Reducing Strengths: reduce the
likelihood of maltreatment in the future
• Well-Being Related Strengths: serve to
enhance or support the family’s overall quality
of life
• Neutral Strengths: positive qualities or
conditions in the family that do not directly act to
mitigate safety threats, reduce risk or enhance well-being
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center
301:Engaging Clients from A Strength-Based, Solution-Focused Perspective
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Engagement
• Engage: to obtain or contract for; to
obtain and hold the attention of; to
pledge or promise; to interlock or
cause to mesh
(The American Heritage Dictionary).
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center
301:Engaging Clients from A Strength-Based, Solution-Focused Perspective
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Engagement: Process & Outcome
• Engagement is both a process
and an outcome.
• It requires the effective and
balanced use of helping skills
and protective authority
• It produces an ongoing
worker/client relationship that
results in the pursuit and
accomplishment of agreed upon
goals (ASFA + client goals)
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center
301:Engaging Clients from A Strength-Based, Solution-Focused Perspective
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Promoting Effective Engagement
• Tuning-in to Self and Others
• Focused Listening
• Clarification of Role and
Purpose
• Respect
• Clear and Accurate
Response to Client
Questions
• Honesty
• Dependability
• Identification and Support
of Client Strengths
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center
• Seeking to Understand the
Client’s Point of View
• Culturally Sensitive
Practice
• Connecting Agency Goals
with Client Goals
• Investment in Client
Success
• Outcomes-Oriented
Practice
• Regular Feedback
• Confrontation
• Demand for Work
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Protective Authority
• Protective Authority is the application of
helping and/or coercive strategies that result in
client acceptance of CYS intervention and effective
client engagement leading to the assurance of child
safety, reduction of risk of maltreatment,
promotion of well-being and timely permanence.
And
/or
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301:Engaging Clients from A Strength-Based, Solution-Focused Perspective
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Protective Authority is a
Continuum that Requires Balance
and Flexibility
Clarifying/
Helping
Confronting/
Forced Choice
Low
Moderate
Police/ Courts:
Removal/ TPR
High
Balance/Flexibility =
Engagement &
Protective Partnership
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center
301:Engaging Clients from A Strength-Based, Solution-Focused Perspective
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Avoiding Authority Extremes
“Nice”
• Stance: submissive
• Concern: conflict
• Client potential:
ambivalent
• Authority: minimizes
• Goal for client:
cooperation
• Style: inconsistent
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center
301:Engaging Clients from A Strength-Based, Solution-Focused Perspective
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Avoiding Authority Extremes
“Tough”
• Stance: superior
• Concern: loss of control
• Client potential:
pessimistic
• Authority: heavy
• Goal for client:
compliance
• Style: inflexible
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center
301:Engaging Clients from A Strength-Based, Solution-Focused Perspective
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Solution-Focused Core Principles
• If what you are doing
doesn’t work, stop
doing it and do
something else.
• If what you are doing
is working, do more
of it.
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center
301:Engaging Clients from A Strength-Based, Solution-Focused Perspective
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Problem Model vs. Solution Model
The Problem-Focused Model
• The practitioner is the expert.
• Practitioner must figure out the
type of client problem and the
related solution.
• The “Problem” is seen as real and
separate from the client as a whole
person; the client is “labeled”.
• The job of the professional is to
know about various problems,
have assessment procedures
and present interventions for
client compliance.
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center
301:Engaging Clients from A Strength-Based, Solution-Focused Perspective
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Problem Model vs. Solution Model
The Solution-Focused Model
• The client is the expert about his/her life.
• Practitioner must facilitate client solution
building.
• Solutions emerge without connection to
the specific related problem.
• The “problem” does not exist apart from
the client as a whole person in context.
• The job of the professional is to
understand the direction that the client
wants to go, identify the supporting
strengths and co-construct solutions that
promote family and ASFA goals.
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center
301:Engaging Clients from A Strength-Based, Solution-Focused Perspective
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Contrasting Types of Questions
Problem Questions
Solution Questions
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What is the worst this
problem has been?
What’s going on during
those bad times?
Can you think of anything
you are doing to set him
off?
Have you thought about
getting treatment for this
problem?
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center
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Tell me about the times
when this problem is a
little bit better?
How did you make this
happen?
What are you doing
differently during those
times when things are a
little bit better?
What would your best
friend (mother, child, etc.)
tell you when things are
going a little bit better for
you?
301:Engaging Clients from A Strength-Based, Solution-Focused17
Perspective
7 Key Solution-Focused Strategies
1. Identifying strengths
in a problem situation.
2. Exploring past successes.
3. Finding & using exceptions
to the problem.
4. Facilitating a positive
vision of the future.
5. Developing Action Steps.
6. Scaling questions.
7. Encouraging commitment.
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center
301:Engaging Clients from A Strength-Based, Solution-Focused Perspective
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Types of Useful Questions:
Exceptions
• Exceptions are those occasions in clients’ lives
when their problems could have occurred but did
not – or at least were less severe.
• Exception questions focus on who, what, when and
where (the conditions that helped the exception to
occur) - NOT WHY; exceptions should be related to
client goals.
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Perspective
Types of Useful Questions:
Coping
• Coping questions are related in a way to
exploring for exceptions. They attempt to help
the client shift his/her focus away from the
problem elements and toward what the client is
doing to survive the painful or stressful
circumstances.
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Perspective
Types of Useful Questions:
Indirect or Relationship
• Indirect/Relationship questions invite the client
to consider how others might feel or respond to
some aspect of the client’s life, behavior or future
changes.
• Indirect questions can be useful in asking the
client to reflect on narrow or faulty perceptions
without the worker directly challenging those
perceptions or behaviors.
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Perspective
Types of Useful Questions:
Scaling
• Scaling questions invite the clients to put
their observations, impressions, and
predictions on a scale from 0 to 10, with
“0” being no chance, and “10” being every
chance.
• Questions need to be specific, citing
specific times and circumstances.
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center
301:Engaging Clients from A Strength-Based, Solution-Focused Perspective
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Types of Useful Questions:
Miracle
• The “Miracle Question” is the opening piece of
the process of developing well-formed goals.
• It gives clients permission to think about an
unlimited range of possibilities for change.
• It begins to move the focus away from their
current and past problems and toward a more
satisfying life.
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Perspective
Posing the Miracle Question
“Now, I want to ask you a different
kind of question. I want you to
imagine a time in the future when the
problem which brought you to the
attention of CYS is solved. All the
present barriers are gone. So, when
this miracle happens what will be
different that will tell you that this
positive future has happened and the
problem is solved?”
(adapted from de Shazer, 1988)
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center
301:Engaging Clients from A Strength-Based, Solution-Focused Perspective
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Follow-up Questions to the
Miracle Question
Through follow-up questions, the interviewer
further extends and amplifies the impact of the
miracle by a series of questions designed to guide
the client in exploring the implications of the
miracle in the client’s life.
• “What might others notice about you that would
tell them that the miracle has happened, that
things are different or better?”
• “Have there been times when you have seen pieces
of this miracle/positive future happen?”
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Perspective
Dialogue I: Review High Authority
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2
2
3
2
0
1
0
4
3
Asking about change, difference or exceptions 3,5
Asking for client feedback 10,11
Asking for information about a problem 6,8,13
Clarification of purpose or role 2,14
Demonstrating understanding of the client’s words and feelings
Reinforcing client strengths and accomplishments 4
Scaling and scaling follow-up questions
Confrontation 7,9,12,12
Explaining actual or possible consequences of client
behavior,12,14,15
2 Demand for work 15,16
0 Summarizing
1 Planning next steps 17
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Perspective
Comparison of Interview Styles
Question/Statement Type
One
Two
Asking for information about change, difference or exceptions
2
8
Asking for client feedback
2
8
Asking for information about a problem
3
7
Clarification of purpose or role
2
4
Understanding client’s words and feelings
0
3
Reinforcing client strengths and accomplishments
1
5
Scaling and scaling follow-up questions
0
4
Confrontation
4
2
Explaining actual or possible consequences
3
0
Demand for work
2
4
Summarizing
0
1
1
1
Planning next steps
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center
301:Engaging Clients from A Strength-Based, Solution-Focused Perspective
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Problem Wagon
ASFA
GOALS:
•Safety
•Permanence
•Well-being
Problem
•Timeliness
Wagon
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Perspective
Strength/Problem Wagon
ASFA
GOALS:
•Safety
•Permanence
•Well-being
Strengths/Problem
Wagon
•Timeliness
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center
301:Engaging Clients from A Strength-Based, Solution-Focused Perspective
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Solution Wagon
ASFA
GOALS:
•Safety
•Permanence
•Well-being
Solution
Wagon
•Timeliness
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center
301:Engaging Clients from A Strength-Based, Solution-Focused Perspective
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Summary of Key Concepts
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Prepare to be Strength-Based and Solution-Focused.
Clarify your role and the purpose of your meeting or
interview.
Listen and seek to understand the client’s perceptions.
Look for client/family strengths.
Negotiate an agreement to do the work.
Use the least intrusive effective level of protective
authority.
Identify and develop clear goals.
Use scaling questions to assess and build client
confidence
and commitment.
Work on developing small steps toward goals.
Support progress and work to overcome barriers.
Celebrate accomplishments.
Check: Was the interview a professional interview?.
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Perspective
WHAT SBSFA CAN & CAN’T DO
No model can give you more time to do your job.
However, the SBSFA can help to focus your time
and energy in the direction of behaviors and tasks
that are sharply focused on the mission of child
welfare, on unit performance and the most critical
elements of your role.
• *BE CURIOUS
• *BE PATIENT
• *GROW YOUR
COMPETENCIES
• *TRY OUT NEW
KNOWLEDGE & SKILLS
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center
301:Engaging Clients from A Strength-Based, Solution-Focused Perspective
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